Afghanistan Geography, Maps, History, Government, Culture, Facts

Afghanistan Geography, Maps, History, Government, Culture, Facts

Afghanistan Geography:

Afghanistan Geography, about the size of Texas, is adjacent to Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, bordering Iran in the northeastern part of China, from eastern and southern Pakistan, in the west. The country is divided from east to west by the Hindu Kush mountains, and the east rises to a height of 24,000 feet (7,315 meters). In addition to the southwest, most of the country is covered by snow-covered mountains and through the deep valleys.


In June 2002, the multiparty republic replaced an interim government established in December 2001 after the fall of the Islamic Taliban government.


Darius I and Alexander the Great were the first to use Afghanistan as a gateway to India. The Islamic conquerors arrived in the 7th century, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane in the 13th and 14th centuries.

In the 19th century, Afghanistan became the battlefield between the Empire of England and Hungary to control the competition between Central Asia. Three British-Afghan wars (1839-1842, 1878-1880 and 1919) ended. In 1893, the British established an unofficial border, the Durand line, separating Afghanistan from Britain's India, and London was completely independent in 1919. Emil Amanullah founded an Afghan monarchy in 1926.

Soviet Invasion:

During the Cold War, King Mohammed Zahir Shah developed close ties with the Soviet Union and accepted a great deal of economic aid from Moscow. He was given up in 1973 by cousin Mohammed Daoud, who announced a republic. Daoud was killed in the 1978 coup, Noor Taraki came to power, established the Marxist regime. He was executed in September 1979, Hafizullah Amin became president. Amin was killed in December 1979 because the Soviet Union launched a full invasion of Afghanistan and installed Babrak Karmal as president.

Soviet and Soviet support of the Afghan government has been fierce resistance to the people. Guerrillas, said they were mujahideen, committed jihad or jihad, expelled the invaders. Initially equipped with outdated weapons, the jihadists became the focus of the United States on the Cold War strategy of the Soviet Union, with the help of Pakistan, Washington began to provide advanced weapons to this resistance movement. The Moscow army soon fell into the invincible conflict with the determination of the Afghan combatants. In 1986 Karmal resigned and was replaced by Mohammad Najibullah. In April 1988, the Soviet Union, the United States, Afghanistan and Pakistan signed an agreement calling for an end to external assistance to warring factions. In return, the Soviet withdrawal took place in February 1989, but President Najibullah's pro-Soviet government remained in the capital city of Kabul. lture, Facts

The Rise of The Taliban:

By mid-April 1992, as the Islamic insurgents advanced in the capital, Najibullah was overturned. Almost immediately, the rebel groups began to fight each other. In the chaos of competing factions, a group that claims to be a Taliban - composed of Islamic students - took control of Kabul in September 1996. It imposes severe fundamentalist laws, including stealing hands for adultery and theft. Women are forbidden to work and schools, and they are asked to cover themselves from head to foot in public places. By the fall of 1998, the Taliban had controlled about 90 percent of the country, and as a result of its scorched earth tactics and human rights violations, it had become paralyzed internationally. Only three countries - Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and UAR - admitted that the Taliban was a legitimate government in Afghanistan.

On 20 August 1998, US cruise missiles attacked a terrorist training camp in Afghanistan, believed to have been funded by bin Laden, Uganda, a wealthy Islam that was protected by the Taliban. The United States demanded the expulsion of bin Laden, who believed to be involved in the bombing of the United States Embassy in Kenya and Tanzania on 7 August 1998. The United Nations also demanded that the Taliban be handed over to bin Laden for trial.

In September 2001, legendary guerrilla leader Ahmed Shah Amus was killed by suicide bombers, a seemingly dead anti-Taliban force, a loosely connected group, known as the Northern Alliance. A few days later, terrorists attacked New York's World Trade Center tower and the Pentagon, bin Laden became the main suspect in the tragedy.

The United States Responded to The September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks:

On 7 October, after the Taliban repeatedly refused to stand behind bin Laden, the United States and its allies carried out daily air strikes against Afghan military installations and terrorist training camps. Five weeks later, with the help of the US Air Force's support, the Northern Alliance managed Mazda Sharif and the key cities of the capital, Kabul, at an alarming rate. On 7 December, the Taliban regime collapsed completely, when its troops fled their last fortress, Kandahar. However, Al Qaeda members and other jihadists in various parts of the Islamic world, earlier along with the Taliban, still had strong resistance, forcing the United States and allied forces to stay in Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden and Taliban leader Muhammad Omar are still big.

In December 2001, Hamid Karzai, a leader of the Populzai clan, a Pashtun (the country's leading ethnic group) and a powerful 500,000 people, was appointed head of the Afghan interim government; in June 2002 , He officially became president. The United States maintains about 12,000 soldiers to combat the remnants of the Taliban and Al Qaeda, and some 31 countries also contribute to NATO-led peacekeeping forces. In 2003, attacks on US leading forces intensified as the Taliban and Al Qaeda began to regroup in the United States after the transfer of military efforts to combat the Iraq war.

President Hamid Karzai's grasp of power remains insignificant, as deep-rooted warlords continue to carry out regional control. It is noteworthy, however, that the first democratic presidential election in Afghanistan in October 2004 was a success. 10 million Afghans, accounting for more than one third of the country, registered votes, including more than 40% of eligible women. Karzai was announced in November, accounting for 55% of the vote, and opened in December.

In May 2005, in a Newsweek report, American guards profaned the Koran in prison in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and 17 of them were killed in anti-American protests. In September 2005, Afghanistan held its first democratic parliamentary elections in more than 25 years.

The Rise of The Taliban:

The Taliban continued to attack US forces in 2005 and 2006 - since the end of the 2001 war, the latter became the most deadly year for US troops. In 2004 and 2005, Afghan US troops gradually increased from a low of 10,000 to nearly 18,000. In the spring of 2006, Taliban militants - a thousand people at that time infiltrated southern Afghanistan, intimidating local villagers, attacking Afghan and US forces. In May and June, Thrust was launched and more than 10,000 Afghan and coalition forces were deployed in the south. About 700 people, most of them are Taliban, were killed. In August 2006, NATO forces took over military operations in southern Afghanistan from a coalition led by the United States. NATO's mission in Afghanistan is considered to be the most dangerous in its 57-year history.

Taliban attacks intensified and increased by the end of 2006 and 2007, and militants entered the eastern part of Afghanistan from Pakistani tribal areas. The Pakistani government denies its intelligence agencies support Islamic militants, despite the conflicting reports of Western diplomats and the media.

A report by the United Nations in August 2007 suggests that the Taliban opium production in Afghanistan has doubled in two years. The report further states that the country has provided 93 per cent of the world's heroin. Southern Afghanistan, especially in the province of Helmand, saw the biggest peak.

The Taliban continued to attack and gain strength during 2007 and 2008. In February 2008, US Secretary of State Robert Gates warned NATO members that Al Qaeda's threats to its land were real and that they had to increase the strength of the troops to stabilize Afghanistan and boycott Al Qaeda and the Taliban.

Taliban Attacks Become More Deadly:

In the summer of 2008, the United States had 34,000 soldiers in Afghanistan, the highest level since 2005, but that was not enough to curb the country's growing violence or the recovery of the Taliban and Al Qaeda. In fact, June 2008 was the most deadly month for US and coalition forces since the 2001 US-led invasion began. Forty-six soldiers were killed and 31 American soldiers were killed in Iraq during the same period. In addition, a Pentagon report pointed out that the United States faced two separate rebellions in Afghanistan: the southern Taliban and the militant band bordering Pakistan on the east. These enemies seek to expel "all foreign military forces from Afghanistan, eliminating the influence of external governments in their respective regions, and practicing religious conservative, Pashtun-led government. Some US officials began to question the effectiveness of President Karzai and his control These doubts were further justified in June, when the Taliban brutally planned a jailbreak in Kandahar and released about 900 prisoners, 350 of whom were Taliban.

In August, up to 90 Afghan civilians, 60 of whom were children, were killed in an air raid in the village of Azizabad in the west. This is one of the most deadly air strikes since the beginning of the 2001 war, and the most deadly of civilians. However, the US military refuted the figures confirmed by the United Nations, claiming that the air raid was to deal with militant attacks, resulting in less than 10 civilians and about 30 Taliban members died. The US military survey released in October found that more than 30 civilians and fewer than 20 militants were killed in the attack.

The Pakistani military launched a three-week cross-border air strikes in Afghanistan's Baylor area in August, killing more than 400 Taliban casualties. Persistent air strikes forced many Al Qaeda and Taliban militants to withdraw from their towns under their control. However, the Pakistani government announced a ceasefire in the Bayale region in September, following Ramadan, raising concerns that the Taliban would take advantage of this opportunity to regroup.

The number of Afghan allied deaths reached 267 in 2008, the highest since the 2003 war began. US President Barack Obama said the defeat of the Taliban would be his administrative imperative. The Pentagon seemed to share Obama's sense of urgency, saying it would comply with the demands of General David McKiernan, the top commander in Afghanistan, and sent another 20,000 troops to Afghanistan in 2009. In May 2009, General David McKiernan was replaced by an experienced special operations commander, General Stanley McChrystal.

Afghanistan Held its Second Direct Presidential Election:

Provincial and presidential elections were held on 20 August 2009, despite the Taliban's call for boycotting the election and the threat posed by the militias to the voters. Violence has skyrocketed in the days leading to the election. More than 30 candidates have challenged the incumbent Karzai, Abdullah Abdullah is the most powerful competitor. Abdullah, who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in Karzai until 2006, served as the leader of the United Nations National League opposition coalition. The early results made Karzai ahead of Abdullah, but the allegations of widespread and open fraud immediately surfaced. In September, the United Nations-sponsored Electoral Complaints Committee announced that it had "clear and convincing evidence of fraud" and requested partial recount. In the southern region of Afghanistan, most of the support for Karzai's fraud is particularly shocking. Afghanistan Geography, Maps, History,Government, Culture, Facts

The results of the elections announced in October showed that Karzai was absent on the 50 per cent vote and that a second round of elections had to be held. Karzai agrees to participate in the runoff of his main rival, Abdullah Abdullah. Prior to the second round of the 7th round of elections on 7 November, Abdullah withdrew from the campaign to protest the election of the Karzai government to dismiss allegations of widespread fraud accused of participating in the first round of elections. Karzai was announced on 5 November and began his second five-year term of office. He had difficulty at the beginning of his second term, when the Parliament rejected about two-thirds of the Cabinet elections in January 2010. Afghanistan Geography, Maps, History,Government, Culture, Facts

A smooth election is considered vital to continue to support the war in support of the United States in Afghanistan. During the election campaign, President Obama's plan to send more troops to Afghanistan began to arouse criticism by critics who said that the operation had deviated from the original mission of combating terrorism and the establishment of the country and questioned Afghanistan's improved security and stability Ability and commitment to the government.

Support The Wilderness of War:

The US-led war in Afghanistan continued to decline in 2010. People's support for the nine-year war in the United States has been reduced, the number of casualties has declined, and the Afghan government and the military have barely shown signs of being able to control the country, the Taliban stronghold. About six thousand US, Afghan and British troops attacked the southern city of Maria in February, trying to destroy the Taliban haven. The attack was the biggest since the start of the invasion and was an example of a new anti-insurgency strategy, which would form an alliance where the Afghan forces cleared the militant areas and the Afghan forces eventually took control of the continued support of the coalition forces. In May, the Taliban returned to Maria, resuming the struggle with the troops and the inhabitants. The failure of Maria forced the United States to reconsider similar efforts in Kandahar. However, the United States and Afghan forces in September launched an offensive, the Taliban out of Kandahar.

In July 2010, the informant's website WikiLeaks released 92,000 US military documents, describing a much more optimistic picture than the war reported by the US government. These documents show that rebel forces and resilience continue to increase, and the Allied forces lack the many resources needed for the success of the war. These documents have also strengthened the widely believed ISI, the Pakistani intelligence agency, has been fighting against the Taliban and the militant battle, secretly supporting the insurgents in the fight against the Allies fighting in Afghanistan, while working with the US WikiLeaks in November About 250,000 foreign telegrams highlighted local corruption that plagued Afghanistan. For example, former vice president Ahmed Zia Massoud was found to have $ 52 million in cash. These cables also show the world's leaders' deep doubts about the Karzai leadership and describe him as increasingly unpredictable and unreliable.

In September 2010, parliamentary elections were held. Voter turnout is low, about one-third of eligible voters vote. As with previous elections, allegations of ballot filling and voter intimidation are common. Approximately 20% or 1.3 million votes were rejected for fraud. As a result, the Government was detained for several months as a result of the election of officials to review the results of the elections. August 2011 - Nearly one year after the election, the Independent Electoral Commission changed the results, deprived nine members of the seats and resumed nine other disqualified parliamentarians. The ruling should be for Karzai to appoint a cabinet and nominate a judge to pave the way to the Supreme Court.  Afghanistan Geography, Maps, History,Government, Culture, Facts

Taliban's leading members, President Karzai and his advisers, held talks in October to negotiate a nine-year war. In order to prevent the opposing Taliban leaders from hurting or killing the Taliban leaders, the Taliban leadership's secret was held by NATO troops from Pakistan's safe haven. One of the Taliban leaders is believed to be the second appointed Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour. However, in November revealed that the man who formed Mansour was a deceiver of Karzai and NATO officials.

By the end of 2010, due to the stubborn leadership of Karzai and the stubborn resistance of the Taliban, the Obama administration began to make it clear that the US military would remain in Afghanistan until the end of 2014, far more than his combat troops in 2009 In July began to withdraw.

Osama bin Laden Was Killed:

On May 2, 2011, US Army and CIA staff shot and killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan's Abbottabad, a 500,000 population with military bases and military academies. city. When the troops descended in the buildings where Osama bin Laden fell, the shootout broke out and Osama bin Laden was shot in the head. The news of bin Laden's death brought joy and comfort throughout the world. 

"Osama bin Laden has been a leader and a symbol of Al Qaeda for more than 20 years." Osama bin Laden's death is one of the most important achievements that my country has so far defeated Al Qaeda, but his death Does not mark the end of our efforts. There is no doubt that Al Qaeda will continue to attack us. We must, we will be vigilant at home and abroad.

While bin Laden's death was welcomed in the United States and around the world, analysts expressed concern that Al Qaeda might require retaliation. US embassies around the world are highly alert that the US State Department warns of travelers visiting dangerous countries, instructing them to "limit their travels outside their homes and hotels to avoid large-scale gatherings and demonstrations." Some Afghan officials have expressed concern that bin Laden's Death may prompt the United States to withdraw troops from Afghanistan and say that the United States should remain there because terrorism continues to plague the country and the region.

"Interior Minister Hanif Abdair told the New York Times:" The killing of Osama should not be seen as a task. "Al Qaeda is not just Osama bin Laden. Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, an Egyptian doctor, is the al-Qaeda theological leader and may receive bin Laden.

The fact that bin Laden's possession of a complex in Pakistan near a military base may oppress the relationship that has been mistrust between the United States and Pakistan. In fact, Pakistan has long denied bin Laden's hiding in its territory, the United States each year to Pakistan to provide about one billion US dollars for the fight against terrorism and tracking Osama bin Laden.

Violence and Assassination Reduce Confidence in The Afghan Security Forces:

In June 2011, President Obama announced that the United States in Afghanistan to achieve its basic goals, has now begun to withdraw, began to "focus on building the country in the country." He said that 10,000 of the 30,000 troops deployed in 2009 will leave the country by the end of 2011 and the remaining 20,000 will leave in the summer of 2012. The rest of the US forces - about 70,000 people - will be gradually withdrawn by the end of 2014, and security will be transferred to the Afghan authorities. Some military officials have expressed concern that the drawdown will undermine the progress of the Taliban.

Ahmed Wali Karzai, the half-brother of Karzai's president, may be the strongest and most frightening man in southern Afghanistan, where his security officer was assassinated in July. Karzai served as the governor of the provincial council in Kandahar province, which is an important strategic city in the south and a puppet of the Pashtun tribe. While people generally accused of corruption and accused him of operating a heroin ring, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) worked closely with Karzai to rely on his terrible power brokers to help stabilize the volatile areas by The common goal of the tribe is to defeat the Taliban.  Afghanistan Geography, Maps, History,Government, Culture, Facts

On 6 August 2011, the Taliban shot down a transport helicopter, killing 30 US troops, seven Afghans and one interpreter. This is the highest death rate of the US military in the day. Twenty-two elite Navy seals were killed and some members killed Osama bin Laden. In September, the Hakani network members formed an alliance with the Taliban, launched a violent attack in Kabul, to the US embassy, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force headquarters and other diplomatic outposts. Nearly 30 people were killed, including 11 militants. The United States later accused the Pakistani spy agency, the service intelligence agency, to help the Hakani network plan to attack. In fact, Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States, said ISI "is a true feature of the Pakistani Federal Intelligence Agency. Afghanistan Geography Afghanistan Geography

In late September, the peace process in Afghanistan was hit again, when Burghandin Rabbani was assassinated in Kabul. Tajik, Rabbani joined the battle of the Soviet Union, becoming one of the five factions of the jihadists. After the collapse of the communist regime in 1992, Rabbani became the president of the interim government, which lasted until 1996, when the Taliban was overthrown. He was recently the chief negotiator of the government and the insurgents. He was considered to be one of the few politicians who could make the Taliban and former members of the Northern Alliance into the polling table.

The United States Began to Reduce its Role in Afghanistan Deteriorated:

Soon after, US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced in early February 2012 that the military will end its operational role in Afghanistan in mid-2013, turn to "advisory and aid" capabilities, a series of mistakes and tragedy intensified against the United States The The mood forced officials to consider accelerating further withdrawal. First, the US military was brought to the video to exclude the body of the Taliban fighters. After the incident in February, another US army accidentally burned several copies of the Qur'an. Two US officials working in the Afghan Interior Ministry were killed and retaliated. In March, an American soldier came into charge and killed 16 Afghan civilians, including nine children. These events sparked a national anti-American. Protests in Afghanistan, US officials worry about the resurrection of the Taliban, Afghan citizens re-support the Taliban. In addition, the Taliban said it withdrew negotiations with the Karzai government and US officials.

In April, the United States took an important step towards the transfer of military control measures to Afghanistan as it caused the Afghan forces to control special operations missions, including controversial night attacks, which suspected dozens of civilian casualties caused by insurgents. A week later, the Hakkani network was a militant alliance with the Taliban, which carried out seven simultaneous attacks on parliament and green space in Kabul and three provinces (Nangarhar, Parkette, and Loya). These attacks test the defense capabilities of the Afghan army and highlight the growing complexity and threat of the network. Very few casualties, only six people died - but the parliamentary attacks lasted for 18 hours.  Afghanistan Geography.

May 1 - The first anniversary of the killing of Osama bin Laden, President Obama suddenly visited Afghanistan and signed an agreement with President Karzai that the United States will provide aid for Afghanistan 10 years after the withdrawal of troops in 2013.

In September 2012, the United States withdrew the last batch of combat troops deployed to Afghanistan during the surge in 2009. The United States still plans to withdraw all remaining troops by the end of 2014, when Afghan officials will be safe in the country. However, the United States announced in November that anti-terrorist forces would remain in Afghanistan, after 2014, with the role of counseling and training. The Taliban launched a series of suicide bombings and attacks on coalition and government targets in 2012, indicating that the group still poses a threat to government officials and civilians and has raised questions about the ability of the Afghan security forces to maintain order when the Allied combat forces leave problem. In early December, when the Pentagon reported that only one of the 23 Afghan National Army forces could operate without US military assistance, these fears were strengthened. In addition, the report said, "Taliban-led insurgency is still adapted and determined, and retains the ability to issue large amounts of Iraqi forces and carry out isolated high-profile attacks. Afghanistan Geography.

The New York Times reported in April 2013 that the CIA had provided Karlsaki with cash bags for more than a decade. "Ghost money", a total of millions, was originally used to recruit warlords in the war against the Taliban, but with the passage of time, Karzai used the money to win the warlords loyalty, thereby exacerbating the drug trade, Environmental corruption. Afghanistan Geography.

On 18 June 2013, the Afghan National Security Force assumed full responsibility for the security of the country and took over the final area of NATO control. Over the past few years, the strength of the 352,000 troops has steadily improved and has dominated most urban areas. This transition is an important milestone in the fight against the Taliban in the country, and it no longer relies on external forces to remain stable.

Karzai Rejects Security Deal With U.S.

In June 2013, the Taliban opened an office in Doha, Qatar, and its representatives held a press conference with an international media contingent. The U.S. said it would begin long-delayed peace talks with the group. Afghanistan was expected to do the same, but instead said it would not engage in any dialogue with the Taliban, saying such discussions lent the militants credibility. Karzai also seemed to want to control the terms of the talks, saying they must be "Afghan-owned and Afghan-led," implying they could not be held in Qatar. In addition, Karzai pulled out of talks with the U.S. on the bilateral security agreement, which will govern the status of remaining U.S. troops in Afghanistan after the U.S. withdraws in 2014. Talks on the bilateral security agreement resumed in the fall, and after a series of negotiations, U.S. secretary of state John Kerry and Karzai reached a deal in late November that has a residual force of some 8,000 to 12,000 troops staying in Afghanistan through 2024 to train and advise Afghan troops. The soldiers would not engage in combat. In addition, Afghanistan will continue to receive about $4 billion each year in international aid. Karzai reluctantly agreed that the remaining U.S. troops would have immunity from persecution under Afghan law and that special forces could "complement and support" Afghan raids on private homes. Before Karzai would sign it, he sought approval from a loya jirga (a council of Afghan elders), which deliberated for four days before endorsing the deal. Karzai, however, balked and said he would not sign unless the deal was renegotiated and the U.S. agreed that troops would not participate in raids on Afghan homes. He also indicated he would not sign the agreement until after elections in April 2014. U.S. officials told Karzai that they will begin planning for a full withdrawal by the end of 2014 if he did not sign the agreement by the end of 2013. Afghanistan Geography.

Afghanistan released 65 inmates held at the high-security Bagram prison in February 2014, angering the U.S., which said the prisoners were hardened terrorists with U.S. "blood on their hands." The move further deteriorated the relationship between the U.S. and Afghanistan, diminishing hopes that Karzai would sign the bilateral security agreement before April's elections. In light of the developments, the Obama administration began making plans for a full withdrawal. In May 2014, Obama announced that about one-third of the 30,000 troops still stationed in Afghanistan would leave at the end of 2014, half of those troops would be withdrawn by the end of 2015, and by the end of 2016 only a skeleton crew would remain to protect the U.S. embassy in Kabul and help Afghans with security issues.

Presidential Election by Fraud Allegations; United Government set up:

The April elections were successful for high voter turnout and lack of violence or an attempt to disrupt the vote. Approximately 60% of registered voters voted for the President and the provincial council. The Taliban threatened to interfere with the elections and warned Afghans not to vote, but citizens seemed to ignore the threat. A few weeks before the election, the Taliban attacked the voter registration center and the election committee headquarters, but there was little violence on the election day. Eight candidates running for president. Former Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah accounts for about 45%, followed by former finance ministers and World Bank officials Ashraf Ghani, who received a 31.5% interest Held runoff elections. Afghanistan Geography Afghanistan Geography

Runoff was held on June 14, with a lot of fraud charges. Abdullah claimed that the game was charged, saying that the Election Commission and Karzai had confused him. Ghani and Karzai are both Pashtuns, and Abdullah Abdullah's race is Tajik-Pashtun. Abdullah refused to accept any decision made by the National Election Commission and threatened to form a parallel government. The preliminary results lead Ghani to 56.4% to 43.6%. US Secretary of State John Kerry went to Kabul to try to reach a compromise between Ghani and Abdullah. After a tight 12-hour meeting, the two sides agreed to audit each of the 8.1 million votes. The winner will form a united government and the second player will act as the chief executive of the government. At present, the compromise seems to make the country unable to fall into civil war. Afghanistan Geography

The 2014 election dispute reflects the runoff between Karzai and Abdullah in 2009, which is also due to fraud charges. Abdullah withdrew from the campaign to protest the Karzai government's refusal to dismiss elected officials accused of participating in extensive fraud.

In the three months after the controversial run-off elections, Ghani and Abdullah agreed in September to form a united government to Ghani as president, Abdullah in the newly established chief executive position, with the Prime Minister The role is similar. The agreement was a month after the US Secretary of State John Kerry led the negotiations. Abdullah will report to Ghani but will oversee the day-to-day operations of the government. Not entirely clear who will eventually impose more power, which may be problematic. The new government must deal with a recovery of the Taliban, in the election turmoil and economic crisis to step up attacks. Ghana opened on 29 September and signed a bilateral security agreement with the United States on the second day, which would provide for the United States to remain in the country after the end of the United States at the end of 2014. The troops will train Afghan security forces and participate in counter-terrorism missions.  Afghanistan Geography.

Taliban Detainees Released With Prisoners Exchanged With The United States; US General Killed:

After several years of negotiations, the United States and the Taliban completed the prisoner exchange on May 31, 2014. Bob Bergdar, 28, has been detained since June 30, 2009, and the United States has released five senior Taliban members from Guantanamo Prison. The detainee was handed over to the Qatar official and had to stay in the country for one year. Qatar officials agreed to monitor detainees to ensure that they did not participate in militant activities. The Taliban released Bergdale to the US Special Operations Forces in Afghanistan near the Pakistani border, who sent them to German medical care. President Hamid Karzai did not realize the deal until the prisoners were released.

Shortly after the prisoners were transferred, there were many reports that Bergdahl had left his post before being captured by the Taliban. A fierce search begins when Bergdahl's row finds him missing. Several members of the Bergdahl unit said at least two soldiers were killed while searching for Bergdahl. Afghanistan Geography,

President Barack Obama 's opponents quickly suggested that he would allow other militant groups to accept the US hostage by releasing high - level militants against national security. "If you are here to negotiate, you send a message to every ally in the world - by the way, some who are holding the US hostages today - now have some value now in that hostage where they did not have before," said Mike Rogers (Michigan).

In addition, according to the law, Obama was criticized not to consult with Congress before 30 days, and then exchanged prisoners. Obama defends his decision and said: "We have negotiated with Congress for some time that we may need to carry out prisoners to exchange to recover Sergeant Bergdahl, we see an opportunity that we care about the health of Sergeant Bergdahl.

General Harold Green was shot down at a military training school near the Kabul in early August 2014 at an Afghan soldier. He was the first man to be killed in the fight since he was in Vietnam. A few hours later, an Afghan policeman opened fire on a group of American soldiers in Pattaya. No American army was killed in the attack. The shootout highlighted the instability of the military and incidental obstacles faced by the Afghan government, as the United States was prepared to withdraw its troops from the country.

The United States and NATO Ended Operations in Afghanistan:

December 8, 2014, the United States and NATO officially closed the joint operations in Afghanistan. The mission lasted for 13 years and costs close to $ 720 billion, resulting in more than 2,200 US deaths. About 9,800 US combat troops will remain in the country to train Afghan security forces, defeating the Taliban and other militant al-Qaeda. Half of the troops will be withdrawn in mid-2015; the rest will leave by the end of 2016.

President Ghani Announced a Few Months After The Cabinet Office; Visit With The United States of America With Additional Support:

During the months following the September 2014 elections, President Ghani and Abdullah's chief executive worked to set up a 25-member cabinet to meet the country's region and nation. By the end of April 2015, the Parliament had approved all positions except the Minister of Defense. The cabinet is dominated by young educated people, and the former is mainly composed of ex-combatants. Afghanistan Geography.

President Ghani went to the United States in March 2015 and met with President Obama. The visit made Obama committed to leaving all 9,800 troops in Afghanistan by 2016 to provide training and advice to the Afghan security forces. Half of the US military is scheduled to leave in the middle of 2015. The cordial attitude of the meeting shows that the relationship between Ghana and Obama will be significantly better than Obama and former President Karzai.

The Founder of The Taliban Reported Dead:

In late July 2015, the Afghan intelligence agency announced that it believed that the founder and concealment of the Taliban Muhammad Omar Muhammad died in Pakistan in 2013. His death rumors often, he has not been seen for years. The Taliban confirmed the death of Omar, announced on July 31 that Muhammad Akhtar Mohammed Mansour took over the group's top leaders. It was reported that Omar's family refused the elevation of Mansour, showing the division within the group. 

Afghan government officials met with Taliban officials in Pakistan in July 2015 to discuss the resumption of talks. The substance of the meeting was seldom open, but the two sides agreed to resume negotiations. Representatives from the main Politburo of the Taliban in Qatar claimed that members of the meeting were not authorized to attend. However, Pakistani and Afghan officials said Mansour approved the meeting. The dispute further shows how insulting groups have become so fragile. Afghanistan Geography

Taliban Captures Kunduz, Doctors Without Borders in Air Raids:

On 28 September 2015, the Taliban controlled the northern city of Kunduz in Afghanistan. This is the first major city that the Taliban have captured in the past decade. The next day, the Afghan army launched a counterattack, won the Kunduos. The United States supports air strikes against Taliban militants. Afghanistan Geography

On 3 October, the Munshi Hospital Médecins Sans Frontières opened an air raid. 22 people were killed, including 12 hospital staff and 7 patients. Shortly after the incident, the US military issued a statement confirming the air strikes against the Taliban militants in Kunduz, but "the nearby medical facilities may have collateral damage." The United Nations and other international organizations condemned the incident. Two days later, the hospital was severely damaged, and MSF announced that it had left Kunduz, a city that needed medical assistance very much.

According to a report issued by the United Nations, at least 3,455 civilians were killed and 7,457 injured in Afghanistan in 2015. These figures make 2015 the worst year for casualties among Afghan civilians, as the United Nations begins to track the deaths of civilians. The report notes that the Taliban suicide attacks and the northern city of Kunduz are the main reasons for the rise. The report was published on August 7, 2015, and two suicide attacks resulted in 42 civilian casualties, while the other 313 people in Kabul were the worst days of recorded civilian casualties.

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