Alexander the Great: Facts, Biography & Accomplishments
Alexander The Great:
An inspiring inheritance: 356 BC:
Alexander was born in Macedonia's capital Pera, about the time his father became king of Macedonia. Philip II expands the kingdom, an unfolding glory, and excitement of the legendary is Alexander's childhood.
At a young age, he proved himself perfectly capable of sharing these military adventures. He was only sixteen years old when he left to take charge of Macedonia while his father was campaigning in the eastern Byzantium. During his father's absence, he smashes a rebel tribe, the Thracians. As a reward, he was allowed to find a new town on their territory - Alexander, the first of many to be named after him.
Macedonia is considered by other Greek countries to be backward, but the prince's education is the best that Greece can offer. In 343, when Alexander was thirteen years old, Philip invited Aristotle to become a royal tutor.
Three years, the philosopher taught the prince. There is no doubt that they learn Homer together. Eliade became a profound source of inspiration for Alexander. The text scroll will be kept in his tent around him while he gains military expertise to make Homer's hero disgrace. Alexander and his close friends from childhood, Hephaestion, were compared by their contemporaries to Homer's hero Achilles and his lover Patroclus.
Philip in 340 against the Byzantine campaign aroused the Athens and Bibbish take on the field of Macedonian people. The two sides met at 338 in Chaeronea. Later the traditional credit of the 18-year-old Alexander charged with the leading cavalry decided to fight the results. There is no historical evidence in this regard. But the Prince certainly fought in Chaeronaea, the day ended with a decisive victory for the Macedonians.
This victory allowed Philip to show himself as the leader of all Greek states. His position in an assembly of Corinth, 337 officially recognized.
Against the Persian Movement: From 336 BC:
One of the Corinthian resolutions was to launch a war against Persia, and Philip was the commander of the coalition forces. In the next spring (336), an avant-garde of 10,000 troops went east. But the same summer, in celebration of his daughter's wedding feast, Philip was a minister is killed.
Choosing his son, Alexander, in his place as the commander of the Alliance. But this unity is short-lived. Against the coalition's opposition. Alexander Thebes in 335 BC, killing 6000. He then implemented a severe judgment by the Union Commission. The territory of Bambang is distributed among its neighbors. The surviving Thebans were enslaved.
This relentless display of authority allowed Alexandria to leave Macedonia under the regent's control, with reasonable confidence that Greece would remain calm and could prove to be absent for long.
In the spring of 334, still only twenty-two years old, Alexander went east with about 5000 cavalry and 30,000 foot soldiers. There are ancient scores to be resolved between Greece and Persia. They will soon be resolved. But first, he took part in some romantic travel, pilgrimage to the site of Troy. In a classic Greek ritual, he naked to the imaginary Achilles' grave, placing a garland. He was made a shield, is said to be dedicated to Athena by the Trojans.
From now on, this holy shield is always accompanied by the battle of Alexander. It soon saw action. A short distance east of Trojan a Persian army awaits the Macedonians. The battle was fought on the Granicus River, where Alexander led the cavalry through the water. The Persians were routed. Many of their units were Greek mercenaries, of whom thousands were arrested. Most of them were killed but were sent back to Macedonia in 2000 to provide slave labor in mines.
A year later, in Issus, Alexander defeated an army led by the Persian emperor Davis III. He captures the emperor's mother, wife, and children, and treats them with every courtesy - which has a great influence on his reputation.
The Destruction of the Persian Empire: 333-330 BC:
In just eighteen months, Alexander had cleared the Persians out of Anatolia, and they had been held for two centuries. The conquistadors now pass south along the coast to Syria, Lebanon, and Israel today. The port is the base of the Mediterranean Persian fleet. By occupying them, he intends to weaken the fleet and deprive it of contact with the empire of the city, including Persepolis. Most Phoenicians were open to him. The exception is the greatness of them, he sieges for seven months (see Tire Siege).
By autumn 332 Alexander was in Egypt. The governor of Persia quickly surrendered.
Alexander spent the winter in Egypt. His behavior is the first sign of how he sets the place to control the distant conquests that have their own cultural traditions. One way is to establish an outpost of Greek culture. In Egypt, he found the largest city known in his name - Alexander.
Another approach, on average, is to manifest itself in the guise of local rulers. To this end, he sacrificed to the Apis (Apis), Apis Memphis is a sacred bull, the priest there for him. And he made a long pilgrimage at Siwa toward the famous oracle of the sun god Amon, or Amen-Ray. The priest formally recognized that Alexander was the son of God.
In the spring of 331, Alexander was preparing to move northeast to Mesopotamia, where he would meet to defeat the Persian emperor Darius in the decisive battle of Gaugamela. His approach is now open to the Persian capital of Persia.
In a symbolic gesture that ended the decisive long war between the Greeks and Persians, he burned the palace of the Xerxes of 330 (the legend insists that he was prompted by this sabotage act of his Athenian mistress, Thaïs, a Drunken party). Ordinary people now rule the Persian Empire, Alexander to take ceremonial rituals and the emperor.
Alexander in the East: 330-332 BC:
For two years, Alexandria through his newly acquired empire (which stretches to the north beyond Samarkand and east through modern Afghanistan) subdues any opposition and builds Greek settlements. Then he went further, at 327, into India through the Yamaguchi.
One of Alexandria's towns in India was called Bucephala. It was named to commemorate his famous horse, Bucephalus, who dies here at what is the farthest point of this breathtaking expedition. Alexander's army threatened the mutiny of the Indian monsoon. Finally, at 325, he goes home.
As his army strengthened some of the Indian elephants, Alexander returned to Persia. In 324, he held a grand banquet in Susa to celebrate the capture of the Persian Empire. During the celebration, in order to emphasize that Greece and Persia are now one, he and eighty officers marry his wife in Persia. His own bride was one of the daughters of Darius on this occasion. Another daughter married Hephaestion
Later that year Hephaestion died of Ecbatana fever. Alexander piously prayed for his closest friends, ordering the construction of great shrines in the honor of Hephaestion. But in the second year, 323, after the banquet of Babylon, he himself suddenly fell ill and died. In the history of the greatest conqueror, he still only thirty-two.
Conquest of the Legacy: from 323 BC:
Alexander had no successor (although one of his later sons was actually known as the King, until in his early teens in 309 were murdered). So Alexander 's general planned to carve a new empire.
After a long war, two of them appeared in quite a large part. Ptolemy built himself in Egypt. Seleucus won control of the vast region - Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Persia and the eastern part of the Empire, even the territory of India.
Ptolemy, by taking the body of Alexander, increased the legitimacy of his rule in Egypt. He intercepted the protected body on the burial road, took it to Egypt, and placed it in a golden coffin of Alexandria.
It will remain the town's famous attraction for many years until it could be destroyed in the third century AD.
Alexander the great companion originated in Greece, as the Macedonian people, their descendants continue to see themselves as Greeks. The epidermis of Greek culture is a lasting result of Alexander's conquest. It spread from Egypt to Persia, and even beyond the Kaibo Pass, in addition to many close to the Greek Mediterranean.
These places do not become Greek, but they acquired the Greek hue - nineteenth century for its name, Hellenistic. Alexander's victory was initiated by the Hellenistic ("Greek Revival") era, which will last until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC.
Macedonia itself, the home of Alexander, was inherited by the violent unrest. In one of his mother Olympia, arrived in 317 BC with an army, killing his half - witty half-brother Philip III, Philip 's wife, and his supporters. She lost her life in the next coup in the next year.
In 276, a stable dynasty was eventually established by the descendants of Antigonus, another of Alexander the Generals. But its future is relatively short. As part of the westernmost part of the Empire of Alexandria, Macedonia was the first to be devoured by imperial successors. Violations of Macedonia in 197 BC. From 148 Macedonia was reduced to the status of a Roman province. Until the 19th century, it was once again significant in history.
But nothing can dim the memory of Alexander the Great:
The head of the British grenade team, seeking to list the heroes in the grenade arms, began: "Some talk about Alexander, and some of the Hercules." In 333 BC, Troy's tourists will choose the starting line for his companions Glad - also happy to list the order, even if it is considered by rhythm and rhythm.
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