A Brief History of Antarctica - A World History Encyclopedia
Brief History of Antarctica:
Although it is now a frozen wilderness Antarctica has been further north, it has a tropical or semi-tropical climate. The forest grew there and life flourished. Antarctica History
The ancient Greeks realized that the southern hemisphere might have a continent. Aristotle argues that since the world is round, there must be a continent in the southern hemisphere to balance the land in the northern hemisphere. However, the Greeks and the later peoples have no way of proving it.
Until the 18th century, European talent has the ability to explore the Antarctic region navigation. In 1772 - 75, Captain Cook was sent to the Southern Hemisphere expedition. On January 17, 1773, Cook became the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle. He crossed it three times but did not find the land.
The first person who actually saw Antarctica was the Estonian Fabian of Bellinngsingshausen on 27 January 1820. In addition, Edward Bransfield was the second person to see Antarctica on January 30, 1820. Then on December 26, 1821, George Powell and Nattier Palmer discovered the Southern Orkney Islands. In addition, in 1823 the Scots named James Wieder to explore the Weddell Sea.
Further exploration of Antarctica by an American in 1838-39 Charles Wilkes, Frenchman Dumont Delville in 1837-40 and Scottish James Ross in 1839-41. The latter found the Ross Sea and Ross ice shelf.
Decades have passed, the world is not interested in Antarctica. Then in 1892-94, a Norwegian called Carl Larsen sailed to the southern continent. He found the fossil wood, which is the first sign that the Antarctic climate has become warmer. In 1895, another Norwegian, Henrik Bull, discovered that lichens growing on the archipelago were the first to discover that plants grew in the south of the Antarctic Circle. Then in 1897-98, a Belgian named Adrien de Gerlache led another expedition to Antarctica.
In 1899-1900, a Norwegian Carsten Borchgrevink led a group of men in the Antarctic continent through the winter. They proved that even in the extreme Antarctic winter, it is possible to survive. They were also the first to bring dogs to the South Pole.
Antarctica In The 20th Century:
In 1901-03, a German expedition to Antarctica was led by Erich von Drygalski. In 1901-1903, a Swedish expedition was led by Nils Nordenskjold. Also in 1901-02, a British expedition to Antarctica was led by Robert Falcon Scott. Another expedition was led by the Scottish man in 1902 to William Bruce. Finally, in 1908, Ernest Shackleton led another British expedition to Antarctica. Antarctica History Antarctica History
The first person to reach Antarctica was Norwegian, Roald Amundsen (1872-1928). Amundsen in 1910 June in a named "Fram" on board the ship. The expedition arrived in Antarctica in January 1911. They are equipped with snowboarding and dog sledding. They set out on their base and in the winter of October 20, 1911, Roald Amundsen and the other four men, Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, and Oscar Wisting. They arrived on December 14, 1911. They returned to the base on January 25, 1912.
However, Amundsen's achievements were overshadowed by Robert Scott and the tragic death of his adventure. Scott arrived in Antarctica in January 1911 and set out for Antarctica in October. They arrived on January 17, 1912, only to find that they had been beaten by Amundsen. The expedition did not make it back to base, Scott in his diary on 29 March 1912, his last entry. Antarctica History Antarctica History Antarctica History
In November 1928, the first aircraft to fly to Antarctica was the Australian George Wilkins (George Wilkins). However, on November 29, 1929, the American called Richard Bird actually flew over the South Pole.
In 1935, Caroline Mickelson became the first woman to land in Antarctica.
The British were the first to establish a permanent base in the Antarctic for military reasons in 1944. In 1954, the Australian established a scientific base. Today many countries maintain bases in Antarctica. Antarctica History Antarctica History Antarctica History
In 1958 Edmund Hillary arrived at the South Pole. He was the first man to arrive here since Captain Scott took office in 1912. Antarctica History Antarctica History Antarctica History
The Antarctica Treaty was enacted in 1959 and entered into force in 1961. It is designed to protect Antarctica and is frequently revised. Antarctica History Antarctica History
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