Pleural Mesothelioma | Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Options
Pleural mesothelioma is a rare Mesothelioma cancer, endometrium. It is the most common form of cancer caused by asbestos.
Essentials of Pleural Mesothelioma
- Exposure to asbestos is the only scientifically proven pleural mesothelioma.
- Diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma may be very difficult because symptoms may be similar to other diseases.
- Although the prognosis is generally poor, early detection is the best way to improve the chances of survival.
- The most common treatment is the combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Pleural mesothelioma is cancer that affects the intima (pleura). Due to exposure to asbestos, pleural mesothelioma is the most common of the three types of mesothelioma. In the United States, pleural mesothelioma accounts for about 3,000 cases each year. Approximately 40% of patients survived more than 1 year after diagnosis. In addition to the stage of diagnosis of cancer, the patient's age and overall health and other factors may also affect the prognosis.
What are the Symptoms of Pleural Mesothelioma?
Pleural Cancer is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms of this disease are often similar to common diseases, including influenza, cold, laryngitis, pneumonia or pertussis. Pleural mesothelioma-induced chest pain is often mistaken for a heart problem. In order to further complicate the diagnosis, the symptoms usually do not develop into stage 3 or 4 of cancer.
How to Diagnose Pleural Mesothelioma?
Diagnosis of pleural cancer usually takes weeks or months because long-term latency and similar symptoms are associated with more common lung and respiratory diseases. Diagnosis usually begins with a series of image scans, including chest X-ray detection of pleural effusion, CT scans to search for evidence of asbestos exposure, and PET scans to reveal where cancer may spread. However, further testing is needed to confirm the presence of cancer.
If the imaging test shows signs of cancer, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. The doctor can carry out chest puncture to sample pleural fluid, and then carry out further examination. The pleural tissue samples will be collected by biopsy, which is the only way to confirm the diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma.
Once the biopsy is performed, the cells are examined by the pathologist to determine if they are malignant. If pleural mesothelioma is confirmed, the tumor will also be classified according to its cell type.
Pleural Mesothelioma Prognosis
After a thorough diagnosis and thorough examination, the doctor established a possible outcome or prognosis, although the accurate diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma was performed accurately.
Factors That Determine Prognosis Include:
- The age and sex of the patient
- Diagnostic stage of disease
- Patient's smoking history
- Breathing pain
The prognosis of patients with currently diagnosed pleural mesothelioma is poor because the diagnosis often occurs late in the late stage. Many patients die within six months of diagnosis; some live for up to one year, but surviving far more than this time is rare. Clinical trials are ongoing, hoping to find the cure for this disease or to further extend the life of patients with pleural mesothelioma.
How to Treat Pleural Mesothelioma?
Treatment of pleural mesotheliomas with some combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy has been used to develop innovative multimodal methods and immunotherapy to provide hope for improving outcomes. However, since the disease is usually in the late stages of discovery, the treatment regimen is usually very limited.
- Tumors are usually too extensive for surgery
- The more common is the choice of young, healthy patients
- Two surgical methods
- Pleural resection/peeling (P / D): removal of tumors and diseased pleura
- Thoracic pneumonectomy (EPP): pleura, affected the lung, diaphragm and pericardium removed
- Aiming at fast-growing cells, trying to shrink the tumor
- Low success rate
- Clinical trials are looking for the more effective drug combination
- Kill the lungs and pleural cells by radiation bombardment
- Generally ineffective
- Usually, palliative care for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma symptoms
Most experts believe that treatment combinations known as multimodal therapy are more effective than individual therapy.
With the increase in mesothelioma cases, pleural mesothelioma treatment research funding increased. Immunotherapy and other experimental treatment for the future to provide hope that patients can provide more than standard treatment options.
- Use the immune system to fight cancer
- Combined with other treatment methods, can relieve symptoms and improve survival
- There is currently only one choice in clinical trials
- The increase in mesothelioma cases leads to more research funding
- Often test new drug or treatment combination
- The experimental treatment was provided for eligible patients, but the results were uncertain.
What is the Cause of Pleural Mesothelioma?
The pleural lining contains a film called a mesoderm, which secures an important liquid that allows
lung expansion and contraction. Inhaled asbestos fibers become hidden in the pleura, leading to chronic inflammation and may eventually lead to scar tissue in the tumor.
The pleural surface (called the parietal lobe), which is closer to the lungs, is usually more affected than the surface (visceral surface) that is far from the lungs. Often the larger right lung is often less harmed than the left lung. More asbestos tends to settle in the lungs lower than the lungs.
After diagnosis, the patient usually appears multiple tumor blocks, which grow rapidly and can cover the entire lung cavity, causing severe pain and breathing difficulty. In the late stages of pleural mesothelioma, cancer may spread or metastasize into other nearby organs, including the heart, abdomen and lymph nodes.