If robots may be taught from watching demonstrations, your self-driving automobile may be taught how to drive safely by watching you drive round your neighborhood. Photo/iStock.

By Caitlin Dawson

USC researchers have developed a methodology that would permit robots to be taught new duties, like setting a desk or driving a automobile, from observing a small variety of demonstrations.

Imagine if robots may be taught from watching demonstrations: you might present a home robotic how to do routine chores or set a dinner desk. In the office, you might prepare robots like new workers, displaying them how to carry out many duties. On the street, your self-driving automobile may be taught how to drive safely by watching you drive round your neighborhood.

Making progress on that imaginative and prescient, USC researchers have designed a system that lets robots autonomously be taught difficult duties from a very small variety of demonstrations—even imperfect ones. The paper, titled Learning from Demonstrations Using Signal Temporal Logic, was offered on the Conference on Robot Learning (CoRL), Nov. 18.

The researchers’ system works by evaluating the standard of every demonstration, so it learns from the errors it sees, in addition to the successes. While present state-of-art strategies want at the least 100 demonstrations to nail a particular job, this new methodology permits robots to be taught from solely a handful of demonstrations. It additionally permits robots to be taught extra intuitively, the way in which people be taught from one another — you watch somebody execute a job, even imperfectly, then attempt your self. It doesn’t have to be a “perfect” demonstration for people to glean data from watching one another.

“Many machine learning and reinforcement learning systems require large amounts of data data and hundreds of demonstrations—you need a human to demonstrate over and over again, which is not feasible,” mentioned lead writer Aniruddh Puranic, a Ph.D. pupil in laptop science on the USC Viterbi School of Engineering.

“Also, most people don’t have programming knowledge to explicitly state what the robot needs to do, and a human cannot possibly demonstrate everything that a robot needs to know. What if the robot encounters something it hasn’t seen before? This is a key challenge.”

Above: Using the USC researchers’ methodology, an autonomous driving system would nonetheless have the option to be taught protected driving expertise from “watching” imperfect demonstrations, such this driving demonstration on a racetrack. Source credit: Driver demonstrations have been supplied by means of the Udacity Self-Driving Car Simulator.

Learning from demonstrations is changing into more and more fashionable in acquiring efficient robotic management insurance policies — which management the robotic’s actions — for complicated duties. But it’s vulnerable to imperfections in demonstrations and in addition raises security considerations as robots could be taught unsafe or undesirable actions.

Also, not all demonstrations are equal: some demonstrations are a higher indicator of desired conduct than others and the standard of the demonstrations typically is dependent upon the experience of the person offering the demonstrations.

To handle these points, the researchers built-in “signal temporal logic” or STL to consider the standard of demonstrations and robotically rank them to create inherent rewards.

In different phrases, even when some elements of the demonstrations don’t make any sense primarily based on the logic necessities, utilizing this methodology, the robotic can nonetheless be taught from the imperfect elements. In a manner, the system is coming to its personal conclusion concerning the accuracy or success of a demonstration.

“Let’s say robots learn from different types of demonstrations — it could be a hands-on demonstration, videos, or simulations — if I do something that is very unsafe, standard approaches will do one of two things: either, they will completely disregard it, or even worse, the robot will learn the wrong thing,” mentioned co-author Stefanos Nikolaidis, a USC Viterbi assistant professor of laptop science.

“In contrast, in a very intelligent way, this work uses some common sense reasoning in the form of logic to understand which parts of the demonstration are good and which parts are not. In essence, this is exactly what also humans do.”

Take, for instance, a driving demonstration the place somebody skips a cease signal. This can be ranked decrease by the system than a demonstration of a good driver. But, if throughout this demonstration, the motive force does one thing clever — as an example, applies their brakes to keep away from a crash — the robotic will nonetheless be taught from this sensible motion.

Signal temporal logic is an expressive mathematical symbolic language that permits robotic reasoning about present and future outcomes. While earlier analysis in this space has used “linear temporal logic”, STL is preferable in this case, mentioned Jyo Deshmukh, a former Toyota engineer and USC Viterbi assistant professor of laptop science .

“When we go into the world of cyber physical systems, like robots and self-driving cars, where time is crucial, linear temporal logic becomes a bit cumbersome, because it reasons about sequences of true/false values for variables, while STL allows reasoning about physical signals.”

Puranic, who is suggested by Deshmukh, got here up with the concept after taking a hands-on robotics class with Nikolaidis, who has been engaged on growing robots to be taught from YouTube movies. The trio determined to check it out. All three mentioned they have been shocked by the extent of the system’s success and the professors each credit score Puranic for his onerous work.

“Compared to a state-of-the-art algorithm, being used extensively in many robotics applications, you see an order of magnitude difference in how many demonstrations are required,” mentioned Nikolaidis.

The system was examined utilizing a Minecraft-style recreation simulator, however the researchers mentioned the system may additionally be taught from driving simulators and finally even movies. Next, the researchers hope to attempt it out on actual robots. They mentioned this strategy is nicely suited to functions the place maps are identified beforehand however there are dynamic obstacles in the map: robots in family environments, warehouses and even area exploration rovers.

“If we want robots to be good teammates and help people, first they need to learn and adapt to human preference very efficiently,” mentioned Nikolaidis. “Our method provides that.”

“I’m excited to integrate this approach into robotic systems to help them efficiently learn from demonstrations, but also effectively help human teammates in a collaborative task.”

USC Viterbi School of Engineering


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USC Viterbi School of Engineering