Algeria is four times the size of Texas and the continent’s largest country, Azerbaijan bordering Morocco and Western Sahara in the west, bordering Tunisia and Libya in the east. The Mediterranean is the north and the south is Mauritania, Mali and Niger. The Sahara region is 85% of the country, almost completely uninhabited. The highest point is the Sahara Desert of Tahate, up to 9,850 feet (3,000 meters).
The excavation of Algeria shows that Homo erectus lived there for 500,000 to 700,000 years ago. The Phoenician businessmen settled on the Mediterranean coast a thousand years ago. As the ancient Numidia, Algeria became a Roman colony, part of the so-called Mauretania Caesariensis, at the end of the Correctional War (145 B.C.). Conquered the saboteurs of A.D. 440, which fell from the high civilization state to the virtual barbarism, which partially restored about 650 after the invasion of the Arabs, during which the indigenous Berbers were converted to Islam. Algiers served under the control of the Ottoman Empire in 1536 for three centuries as the headquarters of the Barbari Pirates. On the surface is to get rid of the pirate area, the French occupation of Algeria in 1830, and in 1848 became part of France.
The Algerian independence movement led to the 1954-1955 uprising and developed into a comprehensive war. In 1962, the French President de Gaulle began peace talks, July 5, 1962, Algeria declared independence. In October 1963, Ahmed Ben Bella was elected president, the state became a socialist. He began to nationalize foreign shares, causing opposition. On June 19, 1965, Colonel Houari Boumédienne was overthrown by the Constitution, trying to restore economic stability, and he was overturned. After his death, Boumédienne was succeeded by Colonel Chadli Bendjedid in 1978. Berbers riots in 1980 when the Arabic language was made the only official language of the country. Algeria entered a major recession after the collapse of world oil prices in the 1980s.
The First Parliamentary Elections
Fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front (former Islamic Saluter; FIS) won the most votes in the first parliamentary elections in December 1991. In order to stop the election results, the army canceled the election, the country into a bloody civil war. Since the beginning of the war in January 1992, it is estimated that 100,000 people were massacred by Islamic terrorists. 1997-1998, undeclared civil war escalation, its atrocities and meaningless. Islamic extremists initially focused on government officials and then moved to intellectuals and journalists, completely abandoning political motives against unarmed villagers. Massacre is free to be brutal, and the government is clearly ineffective in curbing violence.
Abdul-Aziz Bouteflika was promoted to President in April 1999 and was originally expected to bring peace and some economic improvements to this desperate war-torn country. However, Bouteflika is still locked in the power struggle with the army, and their support is crucial. Despite the emergence of democracy, Algeria is still a military dictatorship. In 2001, the violence of Islamist militants rose again, and long-term dissatisfaction with the Berber minorities carried out several large-scale protests.
Try To Reform
In the April 2004 presidential election, international monitors praised their fairness, and now Bouteflika won 85 percent of the vote. Bouteflika said his second term would be devoted to solving the three-year crisis in the Kabylia region of the Babylonian region, freeing women from the restrictive family law and realizing the “real national reconciliation” caused by the civil war. The country’s terrible economic situation has improved slightly, but Algeria is still facing high unemployment.
In October 2005, Algeria ratified a controversial referendum initiated by Bouteflika, the Charter of Peace and National Reconciliation, granting all amnesty to Islamist and military officials involved in the bloody civil war in the country. It is quite doubtful whether reconciliation can be achieved without anybody in charge, and the president’s plan is called amnesia rather than amnesty.
Reconciliation is Hampered by Terrorist Acts
In April 2007, suicide bombers attacked a government building in Algiers and a police station on the outskirts of the capital, killing about 35 people and injuring hundreds. Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb claimed responsibility for the attack. Terrorist organizations attacked again in December, killing two suicide attacks in the vicinity of the United Nations offices and government buildings in the Algerian capital, killing as many as 60 people. The explosion occurred within minutes of each other. This is the most serious attack in Algeria for more than 10 years.
In June 2008, President Bouteflika replaced Prime Minister Abdulazizi Bilhamad, who had served twice as Prime Minister.
In August 2008, at least 43 people were killed, when a suicide bomber drove a vehicle carrying explosives into a police academy in the town of Issers in northern Algeria. The next day, two car bombs at the same time blew up a military command and a hotel in Bura, killing a dozen people. No one is responsible for the attack, but Algerian officials say they suspect that Al-Qaeda of Algebra is after the bombing.
In November 2008, the Parliament approved the constitutional reform, allowing President Bouteflika to serve his third term. The opposition criticized the move, calling it an attack on democracy. In April 2009, Bouteflika continued to win the re-election, with more than 90% of the votes.
The hope of the opposition to gain influence and voice in the government was broken in the parliamentary elections in May 2012. A moderate coalition of political parties is optimistic that since the spring of 2011 in the Arab world, they can adapt to the region’s change and reform tide. But the league in the 463 seats only won 48, and accused the ruling National Liberation Front (FLN), accounting for 220 seats, fraud.
Dozens of People Died in The Hostage Crisis
On January 16, 2013, Islamic militants captured dozens of foreign hostages at the BP-controlled Amenas gas field in the eastern part of Algeria near the Libyan border. Algerian officials say the militant is a member of the Al Qaeda branch, called Al Mulathameen, who is fighting against the Mali neighborhood of France to crack down on militants who have entered the government-controlled areas. On 17 January, the Algerian forces attacked the complex and attacked the kidnappers. On the end of the January 20 confrontation, 29 militants and 37 hostages were killed. Three Americans are in the dead. The Algerian government has been criticized for taking a brutal attitude towards the crisis, but still has not been criticized.
On 3 September 2012, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika named Abdelmalek Sellal the Prime Minister. The main cabinet position remains unchanged.
On 13 March 2014, Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal resigned in order to perform the re-election of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Energy Minister Youcef Yousfi was appointed prime minister. In April 2014, Bouteflika was elected as the fourth, accounting for 81% of the vote. The opposition, led by Ali Benflis, against Bouteflika and receiving 12 percent of the votes, claimed that there was a “serious violation” in the election.
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