HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA:
One place apart: from 50 million years ago
Although Australia is close to a series of Southeast Asian islands, it is believed to have been an independent land about 50 million years ago. At that time, many could have occurred in evolution, and many species unique to the Australian proof point of view. The most notable examples are kangaroos and koalas in marsupials, as well as in the ostrich family… But there are numerous small creatures in the Australian continent is also developed in isolation.
Many other species, now native to Australia, have evolved elsewhere in the past 50 million years and have jumped from Southeast Asia. Some of these species.
Temporary bridge: 60,000 – 10,000 years ago
Glaciers play a crucial role in the process of mankind’s transition from Asia to Australia and the United States. The effect of the glaciation is to reduce sea level by more than 100 meters. This narrows the gap between many islands, and sometimes even exposes a complete land ridge.
One such ridge of depression is the Sahul Shelf, below the largest ocean between the Indonesian islands and Australia. Another is between Siberia and Alaska.
The first Australians: from 60,000 years ago
The island of Indonesia is like a string of beads pointing to Australia. Stone Age hunters – collectors will undoubtedly find their food on the coast and shoal, and soon use rafts to reach the sea coral reefs. Probably the first person to reach the slightly distant island was brought there by accident rather than by intention.
However, no matter where they landed, there is a lot of food supply. As the Ice Age lowers the level of the Timor Sea (see Ice Age), this series of humans sooner or later arrive in Australia. The first signs of human habitation on the African continent are now between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago.
Australian Aboriginal Hunter Gatherer: Until 1788 AD
Australian indigenous animals are not suitable for grazing, so the tribes of human migration until recently only through traditional methods of hunting and gathering life. One of their favorite hunting weapons is the throwing stick (a boomerang called the southeastern part of Australia). A curved boomerang can be thrown to return to the thrower’s way, used by hunters to make birds fly to the net.
Fresh water is scarce in vast areas of the Australian continent. The territory of each tribe belonging to the hunter-gatherer is defined relative to the watering site, which is associated with the tribal ancestor.
Religious worship by the Australian tribes links the living with the eternal spiritual world known as the “dream”. The world existed before our own creation. Death returns to “dream”, from which they will be born again.
The ritual was enacted in the lively tradition of dance, painting, and music. The Australian tribes painted on the wall of the cave (as early as 25,000 years ago, as shown by recent studies) in wooden tools and eucalyptus. Their style has a very unusual portrayal of a living creature, and the artist likes to include invisible bones and organs. On the music side, Australians can also be surprised – for example, one of the world’s strangest woodwinds, didgeridoo.
Australian Land: 16th to 18th centuries
From the early 16th century, European businessmen were sailing the ocean of Southeast Asia. They are usually accidentally landed, giving unknown areas of hope to increase the wealth of gold, silver or spices. The discovery of Solomon Islands by a Spanish vessel in 1568 prompted an interest in so-called “southern lands”. When Francis Drake sailed to the Pacific in 1577, a brief introduction to Francis Drake was that he should look for this so-called treasure (see Drake’s voyage).
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, its interest was maintained when Dutch ships sailed between the Moluccas and the coast of Western Australia. Are these areas likely to connect to the southern region?
Dutch East India Governor Antonio van dei door decided to investigate. He chose an experienced navigator for this purpose, Abel Tasman, who was instructed to sail the South Indian Ocean and then hit East, hoping to find out if there was an open passage to South America. In the process, he may also be aware of Terra Australis.
Tasman left Batavia in August 1642. He sailed to Mauritius and continued south to east. He first landed in November. After he appointed his governor, he called the land of Vandímen. Until 1856 the island was renamed Tasmania, to commemorate its discoverer.
Maintained on the southern coast of the Big Island, Tasman continued eastward. In December he arrived in New Zealand. Sailing along the northeastern north-south coast, he concludes that this must be the northwest corner of Terra Australis. Tasman found Tonga in January 1643 and Fiji Islands in February. He then continued northwest, north of New Guinea, and returned to Batavia in June.
It is noteworthy that, during his ten-month voyage, Tasman sailed to the real Terra Australis without his attention. This will be another century before the Australian continent was correctly identified and charted.
Captain Cook’s three voyages: 1768-1779
James Cook’s voyage is the first example of a scientific principle. His first expedition, in 1768 from Plymouth’s Endeavor voyage, had a scientific mission as its central mission. The astronomers of the day knew that in June 1769, the planet Venus would pass directly between Earth and the Sun. The international community is trying to figure out the exact details of this crossing, and from all over the world, it is hoped to calculate the distance between the Earth and the Sun.
Cook’s first task was to sail to Tahiti, set a telescope for this purpose, and take the necessary readings.
Cook’s second purpose is to explore. He is one of the other disciplines of the passenger scientist. The botanist Joseph Banks, who is to portray the coasts of New Zealand’s known territory. And his Swedish colleague Daniel Sunderland are eager to collect specimens from the Pacific community.
Cook observed the transit of Venus in the summer of 1769 and then spent the next eighteen months drawing New Zealand’s two major islands and the entire coast of Australia’s east coast. Endeavor in July 1771 to return to England.
The original objective of astronomy proves that the least important part of the voyage (the data prove insufficient to achieve the intended purpose). But Cook’s charts of these important coastlines were carried out before a scientific standard was uncensored.
As the first European to visit the eastern coast of Australia, the report of Cook and his distinguished passengers also helped to encourage the formation of the concept of British settlements.
Tourist Prospects: The 18th Century
By the middle of the eighteenth century, Australia’s inhabitants could have about 300,000 people interconnected throughout the continent, the tribes.
In 1770, new immigrants from Europe began to explore the most temperate and habitable areas of the most northeastern continent. Captain Cook, who arrived in that year, was the first. In the early 1770s, French explorers landed in Tasmania. From 1788 the Europeans began to settle down. The original Australians acquired what they later called the Aborigines – Aborigines. Their lives will not improve.
Proposals on prison colonies: 1779-1786
In 1779, Joseph Banks appeared in the Commons Committee of the Westminster House of Commons and suggested that the eastern coast of Australia he had visited with Captain Cook nine years ago would be a convincing felony of an excellent delivery from England Of the destination. The climate is such that a criminal colony can survive.
Transport is an urgent political issue. In England in the 18th century, there was a huge gap between the rich and the poor, and the law protecting property was bad. Theft of even a negligible level is also a capital offense.
However, while these laws still exist in the law books, they are widely regarded as unfair. More than half of the people sentenced to death were sentenced to prison sentences, and this trend accelerated after the 1768 law explicitly gave the judge the choice of leniency. As a result, British jails are bursting the seams.
The preferred solution is foreign transport. The American colonies were the ideal destination, and many of the criminals were transported there as servants and workers of the compact. But after the American Revolution of 1776, the socket was no longer available. Australia, as Banks points out, seems to be a viable option. In 1786 the parliament decided to establish a criminal colony.
Arthur Phillips and the First Fleet: 1787-1788
Arthur Phillips, a naval captain, was directed by the First Fleet to deliver criminals to Australia. He was also the governor of the colony of New South Wales.
The fleet sailing from Portsmouth in May 1787 consisted of 11 ships carrying 750 criminals (of which nearly 200 were female), 400 sailors and 200 marines, with discipline. By October, they had the last contact with civilization in the Cape of Good Hope, on January 20, 1788, and they arrived at their destination, the Botanical Cove. It gave this seductive name to Cook and the Bank, but those expected to settle here. Find barren and unpopular.
On January 21, Philip traveled a few miles north to discover the natural harbor of Jackson Harbor. Here he opted for a good water supply as the entrance to the new colony. He named the Sydney Bay to commemorate the family secretary, Sydney Accountant.
The prefabricated timber and canvas, designed for the governor in London, was built in the center of the settlement. The tent is for marines and convicts, with a separate camp a short distance for women – who are kept on board until everything is ready. On 6 February they disembarked. After a powerful talk from the governor and religious services, there are celebrations.
One of the difficulties of this particular colony is implicit. At the opening ceremony, some prisoners were arrested for stealing food. They were whipped, and one of them fled to the port rocks in the bread and water diet.
The grim reality is that the lack of agricultural skills and the habit of stealing life in the community lack of equipment until the original soil and the production of food to maintain the colony. By the end of the year, the situation seemed hopeless. Its relationship with Aboriginal Australians and Indigenous Peoples is compounded. Friendly first, their attitudes towards new immigrants change once they are obvious they intend to stay.
Second and Third Fleets: 1790-1792
Somehow, under Philip’s leadership, the colonies survived the first two desperate years – expansion of cultivated land, construction of houses, and even the establishment of the second settlement in Parramatta. A turning point in June 1790, although it was almost invisible.
The three ships, now known as the Second Fleet, arrived at the Gulf with their human goods in a terrible state. More than 1,000 convicts began to travel from the UK; only 750 now arrived in Australia; 500 of them needed care before returning to health, and they could play their part. However, this second fleet also brought about a new feature in the colonial importance of early wealth.
In London set up a group called the New South Wales Regiment, with the police and guarding the colony. Their officials and their families on these ships. These people intend to create a prosperous new life for themselves, and they will prove relentless in their pursuit of their interests.
They established trade monopolies (with exclusive rights to board ships, buy goods on land and resell them), and shamelessly exploit the free labor of criminals. Their actions are often in conflict with successive governors. But sheep farming, bringing about the early prosperity of New South Wales, was entirely developed by this group, the first gentleman of Australia.
By the end of 1792, when Philip returned home as governor nearly five years later, the colonies preferred to set up. It now has about 1,000 free citizens and twice as many criminals. The families of their own free arrival will automatically allocate land and conviction labor is building comfortable brick houses. The third fleet had arrived, bringing in more officers’ wives. Social life is developing, with rowing parties, picnics, and music. This place began to emerge, just as it did before the American colonies, a convincing British outpost.
The expedition is being explored along the Australian coastline to discover other places that may be best suited to solve.
Exploration and reconciliation: 1796-1835
Local adventures on the Australian coast began in 1796 when George Bath and Matthew Flinders made a series of trips to open whales. In 1798, Beth sailed around Tasmania, proving that it was an island (separated from the Strait and is now his name).
In 1802 Flinders took the entire southern coast of the continent from Cape Wind to the Bass Strait. In the following year, he continued his exploration on the east coast and entered the Gulf of Carcanet at the northeast end of the continent.
Along the coasts from Sydney along the two directions, the colonists finally chose the right place for the free settlers to allocate land to the convicted persons as their labor. Hobart was founded in 1804 on the southern coast of Tasmania. Brisbane settled on the same basis from 1824. Both are still part of New South Wales, under the control of Sydney’s governor.
The City of Melbourne has also begun to be a part of New South Wales, but its origins are different. In 1835, Tasmanian settlers and their sheep went through the Bass Strait to find better grazing. They found rich here.
Soon, the community along with other farmers, with their livestock crossing from Tasmania, or driving sheep from the western region on land. New South Wales. By 1850 Melbourne was a market
The development of New South Wales shows that many people think that British settlements in Australia may also be developing well, maybe better, without the additional complications of criminals. The success of the colonies convinced the London government that the whole of Australia should be British, not just its eastern region. These attitudes shape the next two colonies to try.
Beginning in the 1820s, it is suspected that the French may be interested in Western Australia. Suspicion is enough to motivate the British response. In 1829, a navy ship from the Cape of Good Hope asked the United Kingdom west of 129 ° E throughout the Australian continent to make the request (the rest has been considered a part of New South Wales).
Captain, Charles Fremantle, arrived at the Swan River in early May. He was told to ask whether the indigenous people agreed with his proposed possession. To convince himself that they did so, he announced that the whole of Australia is now England.
A month later, a group of settlers arrived at the same place, Stirling as their adjutant. His investigation of the area two years ago convinced him that Western Australia was not a wasteland previously assumed. It was his organization in London to persuade the government to take action and found the first settlers to join the project as investors.
Stirling began to build a port in the Swan River mouth (Fremantle). Then he moved upwards to choose a location for his main settlement. It was selected in August and named Perth.
Early optimism will soon disappear. Only along the river bank has a good land. These settlers are mainly middle-class families, and for the gentleness of these conditions, there is no free labor of self-care. The colonies survived difficulty until finally, in 1849, the government agreed to send criminals. They continued to arrive until 1868, greatly contributing to the colonial success. At the same time, the other is built on the principle of higher minds.
South Australia and the Northern Territory: 1836-1869
Unlike other colonies on the continent, South Australia was founded on a unified theory of colonization. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a letter from Sydney in 1829, suggested that if a land of a new colony were sold at a controlled price, poverty in Britain could be alleviated and that raising Of the funds used to help selected families travel to Australia.
In 1834 the Parliament passed a South Australian bill along these lines (the transportation of criminals to the New Colonies was expressly prohibited). In 1836, Adelaide’s website was selected, and immigration began.
If the early age of the new colony was as difficult as in all other countries, economic problems and the violence between settlers and indigenous populations were numerous. But like everyone else, it survives. It is the Australian mining industry from the earliest to obtain a considerable boost. The rich copper vein was discovered in 1845.
The owner of sheep and cattle squeezed north from South Australia, is blocked by arid areas and the Great Salt Lake. In the 1960s, explorers made every effort to find the way to the north, causing great interest in this remote area. In 1863 the Parliament granted South Australia administrative control over the territory of the Northern Territory.
The result was the establishment in 1869 of a regional center on the North Shore. Originally called Palmerston, its name in 1911 changed to Darwin. Adelaide’s connection with Darwin through the terrestrial telegraph line, placed in two years from 1870, was one of the great achievements of the telegraphic world spread.
The establishment of Darwin was completed by the British encirclement of Australia; it was the only large piece of land occupied by a single colonial power. It will take more time to fully explore the dark interior of the mainland, but only eighty years have elapsed since the arrival of the first British immigrants in 1788. The losers are the indigenous peoples who have been here for over 50,000 years.
The Predicament of the Aborigines: 18-19 Century
The conflict between British immigrants and native Australians was among the most brutal and unequal of many of the earliest colonial times.
Aboriginals, when the Europeans arrived may be about 30 million people, is the most vulnerable of the indigenous peoples encountered by the colonists. Another newly discovered continent, the United States, contains several advanced civilizations (in the southern and central regions) and a tribal society inhabited by a combination of fixed agriculture and hunting in the north. In Australia, there are no mammals that are suitable for grazing or used as packaging animals, and indigenous people are collected only as hunters.
If Aboriginal people are very vulnerable, Australian settlers – a large part of them being convicted or former convicted – are particularly violent. Australia is the only colonial area, and it has been reported that settlers sometimes shoot the locals in a sporting mood.
Conflicts inevitably occur between the two groups on the African continent. Aboriginal populations threatened by violations of their territory in Europe resort to acts of terrorism. On the other hand, there were occasional violent outbursts – especially together, in 1838 at Myall Creek to shoot and burn a captured indigenous party.
But the most shameful abuses of Aborigines are in Tasmania. The locals here are particularly helpless. Long-term isolation from the mainland (up to 10,000 years), when the British arrived in 1804, their number is less than 2000 people. Settlers graze sheep on indigenous hunting grounds, kangaroos killing their main prey. When the native Tasmanians were associated with violence, the settlers attempted (in 1830) to round them all by moving through the jungle on an elongated extension line.
This was the culmination of hostilities known as the Black War. It was a failure (only a woman and a boy were caught in a sewer). But the number of Tasmanians has dropped to about 200 people.
From 1831, these few people were persuaded to choose their own safe haven. They moved to Flinders Island in the Bass Strait. This is the end of violence, but such communities are too small to survive. Before the end of the century, the Tasmanians were dead.
Tasmania (perhaps the only large region in which a new group of human beings completely wipes out its predecessors) is an extreme example of the plight of British indigenous men. On the continent, the population of the nineteenth century was greatly reduced, and poverty and disease, as well as settler conflicts, caused the death of some 20,000 people. But the existence of indigenous peoples does exist today as an important and politically sensitive element of modern Australia.
Jin Chong: 1851-1885
From the mid-19th century, the nature of the Australian colonies was transformed by gold. The first mining boom has been in South Australia, where copper was discovered in 1845. But the real rush began in 1851, just two years later, the California gold rush turned people’s thinking into instant wealth. Gold was found at several sites in New South Wales and Victoria. The richest people are Ballarat and Bendigo.
These are more areas than gold mines. Dried and gold dust, washed by rivers, deposited in alluvial soil streams. Anyone with a shovel and a pan to wash and screen the earth can hope to become rich.
Thousands of people flocked to each new area, where a discovery was found, as new arrivals of boats arrived. The population of Victoria increased from 75,000 in 1851 to nearly 300,000 in 1854.
In all the excitement, a new unethical act joins the lawless state associated with the former criminal. The government tried to control the situation and profit from it, insisting on purchasing expensive diggers for licenses. In 1854, Ballarat’s uprising broke out in anger. The angry people burned their permits and built a fence against the government troops in a place called Eureka (the weeping of the joy of the diggers).
Five soldiers and twenty-five diggers died in the next Eureka battle, but the license issue soon became irrelevant in Victoria. Surface gold has almost been found. From 1855 onwards, digging was increasingly being mined, an activity to replace. But soon, ordinary diggers in other parts of the continent also had another gold rinsing – from 1858 to Queensland, from 1885 to Western Australia. Only those who can afford expensive machinery can buy.
One of the early effects of this economic frenzy was the introduction of Australia’s first group of non-British immigrants into Australia. The Chinese came to the gold fields in large numbers, especially in the early days of Victoria.
By 1854, three years later, for the first time, there were about 4,000 Chinese in the Australian gold mine. The other three years later, in 1857, the numbers were closer to 24,000. Their presence hinted at the huge racial hostility among British diggers, leading to violent attacks on the Chinese and their property during the riots in Lansing in 1861.
This experience is behind a criticized policy throughout most of the 20th century – white Australia. Until the 1960s, all Australian political parties agreed that only Europeans were accepted as immigrants. The descendants of the original Chinese gold digger remained, until recently, the only Asian community within Australia.
under these circumstances,
This history is not complete.
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