A Brief History of Earth's Beginning | The Origins of Life Global Network
How The Earth's Beginning:
The relatively calm space we occupy in the solar system conceals a fiery, violent past and a cold future. This series explores the geology and natural history of the earth, starting from the formation of our solar system, through the influence of asteroids and mass extinction, ending in the human impact on today's environment. In order to really understand the size of the changes our planet experiences, we need to speed up the passage through the huge timetable, pausing on important milestones. And this article, the first series, starts from the beginning. Earth's Beginning
About 4.6 million years ago, a huge gas cloud, known as the nebula, crashed due to its quality, and crushed all of its high-pressure material into an airplane, even if it kept spinning. This material is called the original dish. During the thousands of years after the crash, the sun formed in the center of the disc, and the rest of the nebula gas revolved around it. Nearly 98% of the gas is only hydrogen and helium. (Our sun poses 98% of the mass of our solar system today.) The gas and other materials in the original planets of the sun began to get together at various locations. The constant collision between these objects forms a micro planet, called a planet. The seeds of these planets are ultimately drawn in size by pulling more material, due to the growth of gravity, a process known as accretion, which becomes a true planet within a hundred thousand years after the sun is formed. Giant, Jupiter, and Saturn, Ice Giant, Uranus, and Neptune, form faster than four Earth planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
4.54 Billion Years Ago:
About 4.54 billion years ago, a Mars-sized body slammed into the newly formed earth, part of the liquefied surface, and spilled the pieces out of space. The spout was kept around our planet for a few months before coalescence and formation of the moon. The residual gas is still slowly spinning around the sun, causing streams and waves in space. Elephantine Jupiter is captured in these tides and begins to move towards the sun. The giant's movement, its powerful gravity destroys its dancing, destroys the asteroids and flies them inward to the planet. Over the next few million years, the Earth and other Earth plans went through a period of continuation by asteroids and other smaller bodies. This period in the history of the solar system is known as late heavy bombing. Fortunately, Saturn quickly began to Jupiter back to today's position, even if the solar wind stripped off all the residual gas in the solar system into the interstellar space.
At this point, the earth is still cooled from the formation of the moon, and the bombing period makes it excited and volcanic activity. At some point, asteroids or ice comets with ice hit the earth, causing a lot of water to the earth. Once the earth is cooled, this steam condenses and falls as rain on the earth. Volcanic activity continues, even under newly formed oceans, super volcanoes still exist. Lava constantly flowing on the surface for nearly 700 million years.
By studying the rocks on our planet, we know that all these complex details are similar to the date. The rock keeps records of the various transitions they have experienced. They record their own formation and growth for millions of years, keeping evidence of life and earth activities. Research and date The field of geology is known as stratigraphy. This helps scientists understand the age of many geological processes so that they can build geological timescales for our planet.
The above geological time scale represents the time elapsed since the formation of the earth, divided into sections, each of which is distinguished by the geological events recorded by it in the rock samples. Geological time is divided into several periods, divided into periods, further divided into periods. The discussion of these three scales falls within the scope of this series. However, for the sake of completeness, the specified period is further divided into epochs, and the epochs are divided into ages, and the eons are divided into super-sub.
The first three eons were grouped in the Precambrian Super. The fourth eon, called Phanerozoic, is going on. Although the first three together accounted for most of the Earth's history, extending nearly four billion years, little attention has been paid in terms of biological activity or geological diversity. Thus, in the representation of the above table, they are generally referred to as Precambrian. It contains the Hadean eon, when the earth is formed and the late heavy bombing occurs; when the water first appears and the first life form evolves; when the first multicellular creature appears and the earth's atmosphere first receives oxygen as the result of cyanobacteria proliferation. Earth's Beginning
Early Precambrian saw the formation of the moon, a melting of the earth slowly cooling, the Earth was a small out of control body blow. The water vapor in the atmosphere begins to condense from the influence of asteroids and comets and drops as liquid water on earth. The oceans are formed in heavy volcanic activity. Part of the surface is periodically cooled to form occasional land, but they are immediately swallowed by lava. Then, after about 100 million years of the earth formation, the temperature has become stable enough to form the shell and survive. The atmosphere is heavy and toxic, with almost no oxygen, but because of volcanic activity, there is a lot of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfur.
In another five hundred thousand years, there have been many tiny lands. These continue to be the center of today's continent. The oldest rock on Earth comes from this period, now in Australia, dating back to 4.4 billion years ago. Earth's Beginning Earth's Beginning
In the middle of the Precambrian, the earth has been fully cooled. In the atmosphere, there is still no oxygen. The oxygen on our planet today is produced and maintained by plant life. This hypoxia means the lack of ozone to protect the earth and expose the earth to the sun's ultraviolet rays. However, the Earth's atmosphere can be preserved because its magnetic field has begun to form. This protects the atmosphere from solar winds (as in the atmosphere of Mars).
About 3.5 billion years ago (bya), two supercontinents, called Vaalbara and Ur, formed in each of the five billion years. The land is actually quite small, probably the size of India. But because they are the only land around them, they are called "supercontinent".
Atmospheric hypoxia does not mean lack of life. Life begins on the earth's early Precambrian, 4.1 bya, when the earth has just begun to cool. The gem of this period, called zircon, has a very specific carbon ratio and may show evidence of the biological activity associated with water. It is usually assumed and accepted that one of the main reasons for the creation of life is the existence of the oceans. Liquid water is considered a common solvent, which means that it can transport all kinds of nutrients to all corners of the earth so that even the most remote location to support life. Because of its almost magical properties, the presence of liquid water on the body is a great attraction for today's space exploration. Earth's Beginning Earth's Beginning Earth's Beginning
In addition to nitrogen, methane, and ammonia, volcanoes also release a lot of carbon into the atmosphere. Coupled with condensed water vapor, the earth became a crucible, in this early environment known as the original soup of life formed. It is believed that simple cells are formed in such a humid environment. : Deep-sea hydrothermal vents that may be hit by lightning or another form of energy that can be a place of life in small ponds that contain energy and nutrients from synthetic cell structures. Scientists can not artificially recreate the synthesis of life. How life becomes a lasting mystery.
Earliest Form of life:
However, water is the only one that contains the earliest form of life and is a single cell medium. These can simply absorb nutrients from their surroundings and break down their livelihoods in their systems. This very primitive process makes life dependent on the nutrition of rocks and water. But for the second half of the Precambrian, early single-cell bacteria began to absorb infrared light rather than visible light and began to release oxygen. This is the original photosynthesis. Earth's Beginning Earth's Beginning
Photosynthesis makes the organism create its own food for the first time. This mechanism provides a huge advantage, accelerating the growth of life: from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, starting reproducibility of 1.2 times, multicellular life. Banded iron formation - from the oceanic rock layer shows the iron oxide deposition pulse due to reaction with oxygen - traced back to 3.7 bya present today. The evidence suggests that a large amount of oxygen is intermittently pumped into the water; this phenomenon can only be explained as a biological process. More biochemical rocks, called stromatolites, are formed by the microbial capture of sand formation colonies, the date to 3.5 bya. However, the most solid evidence of photosynthesis can be traced back to 2.4 bya when the cyanobacteria are lush and a lot of oxygen is injected into the air. So, after the formation of the Earth 2 billion years, eventually in the air eventually continue to supply oxygen.
At about the same time, a new supercontinent called Kenorland was set up, and Vaalbara broke up, part of which ended today in Australia and Africa. Kenorland is much larger than Vaalbara or Ur. It is as big as Africa and has existed around 100 million years before the equator.
At the same time, with the increase in photosynthesis, the Earth's atmosphere has undergone tremendous changes. It evolved from a mixture of carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, and nitrogen to become more toxic, and a lot of pure oxygen is detrimental to the existing form of life. Pure oxygen today is still toxic to all life (including humans). Since blue bacteria are aquatic, they also use oxygen to saturate the ocean. This is called a large oxidation event and occurs at 2.3 bya. The rise in the level of this new gas in the Earth's ecosystem has led to two major events on Earth: the first extinction event and the first ice age.
The extinction event, more commonly referred to as mass extinction, is the extinction of a large number of species in a short period of geological time. In the history of the earth, 24 extinctions have occurred in about 200,000 years ago. Five of them are particularly destructive, with detailed, evidence able evidence of their occurrence and consequences. These major extinction events are called the Big Five.
Mass extinction is always happening after a sudden, rapid and uncontrollable change in the global climate - it is obvious that only such extensive changes can kill species that are distributed on land and water in a short period of time. On the contrary, mass extinction may also affect the global climate, because the disappearance of most lives on Earth will destroy the oxygen balance.
With the increase in photosynthesis, only a very small form of life can consume enough new oxygen. There is no place where toxic oxygen goes because there is no oxygen trap. With the increase in oxygen content in the atmosphere and the oceans, the early life that has just emerged has rapidly disappeared. That is why the big oxidation event has also become the first known extinction event.
Another effect of the oxygen hazard is the formation of glaciers. The rise of oxygen naturally removes a lot of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, most notably methane. Oxygen lowers the temperature, which is why the wooded areas are much colder than today's cities. Oxygen saturation in the atmosphere reduces the overall temperature to 5 ° C below today and eliminates the ability of the atmosphere to keep the planet warm. The temperature began to decline sharply, indicating the ice age.
The Ice Age is a period of continuation to millions of years, and the temperature on Earth is reduced. The glaciation is characterized by the presence of continental glaciers and polar ice caps. The ice age is composed of the arctic period, known as the glacier period, with large ice and continental glaciers as the appearance. These glaciers have a warm period in the same ice age, known as the glacier period, where the ice sheet is confined to the poles.
The ice age caused by the massive oxidation events was the first of the five glacier ages seen by the earth, known as the "Hume Ice Age". We are currently in the middle of the ice age of the fifth glacier period.
The next section of this series will discuss the "Hume ice age", the low-temperature ice sheet or the second ice age, the Ken Nolan supercontinental division and the formation of the new supercontinent, as well as the five major mass extinctions of the first and the Horse burst outbreak.
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