A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone or hand phone is sometimes shortened to a simple mobile, cellphone or phone. It is a portable electronic device that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link as the user moves within the telephony service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the mobile telephone carrier’s switching system, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile phone services use a cellular network architecture, so mobile phones are referred to as cellphone or cellular phones in North America.
Handheld mobile radiotelephone services are envisaged in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, the Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt applied for a “pocket-sized folding phone with a very thin carbon microphone.” The early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The competition to create real portable telephone devices began in the aftermath of the Second World War, and many countries are developing. Beginning with the early Generation 0 (0G) services, advances in mobile phones have been tracked in successive “generations” such as Bell’s mobile phone service and its successors, improved mobile phone services. These 0G systems are not cellular networks, support almost simultaneous calls, and are very expensive.
In 1973, John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola demonstrated the first handheld cellular mobile phone using a 2 kilogram (4.4 lb) mobile phone. The first commercial automated cellular network (1G) simulator was introduced in Japan in 1979 by the Japan Telegraph and Telephone Corporation. Subsequently, in 1981, the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system was launched in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Several other countries were followed in the early to mid 1980s. These first generation (1G) systems can support more simultaneous calls, but still use analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x became the first commercial handheld mobile phone.
In 1991, Radiodiola launched its second generation (2G) digital cellular technology in Finland. This has triggered competition in the industry as new operators challenge existing 1G network operators.
Ten years later, in 2001, NTT DoCoMo launched the third generation (3G) WCDMA standard in Japan. Secondly, based on the 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements of the High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) series, the UMTS network has higher data transmission speed and capacity.
By 2009, it is clear that at some point, 3G networks will be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications such as streaming media. As a result, the industry is looking for fourth-generation technology for data optimization, and its speed-up commitment is ten times higher than existing 3G technology. The first two commercial technologies for 4G are the WiMAX standard offered by Sprint in North America and the LTE standard first offered by TeliaSonera in Scandinavia.
5G is the technology and terminology used in research papers and projects to represent the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the 4G / IMT-Advanced standard. The term 5G is not officially used in any norm or official document published by telecommunications companies or 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. Standardization bodies are currently developing new standards beyond 4G, but they are currently considered 4G umbrellas rather than next-generation mobile devices.
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