Space is an infinite three-dimensional range of objects and events with relative positions and directions. Physical space is often conceived as three linear dimensions, although modern physicists generally consider it to be part of an infinite four-dimensional continuum called time and space over time (spacetime) . The concept of space is considered essential for understanding the physical universe. However, there is still disagreement between philosophers about itself as an entity, a relationship between entities, or a part of a conceptual framework.
The debate about the essence, nature, and mode of existence of space can be traced back to ancient times. That is, Tiramus like Plato, or Socrates in his thoughts on what the Greeks call khôra (the space) Thesis, or Aristotle’s physics (fourth volume, delta) in the definition of topos (ie, location), or in the later “geographical concept of place“, as the place of the 11th century Arab scholar Alhazen “Space extension” in the discourse (Qawl fi al-Makan). Many of these classical philosophical issues were discussed during the Renaissance and then re-emphasized in the 17th century, especially in the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton’s view, space is absolute – in a sense it is permanent and independent of any matter in space. Other natural philosophers, especially Gottfried Leibniz, argue that space is actually a collection of relationships between objects, given by their distance and direction. In the 18th century, the philosopher and theologian George Berkeley tried to refute the “visibility of spatial depth” in his “going to a new visual theory.” Later, metaphysician Emmanuel Kant said that the concepts of space and time are not derived from the empirical concepts of external world experience – they are the elements of a given system framework that humans possess and use to build all experience. Kant’s experience of space in his “Critique of Pure Reason” is a subjective “intuition of pure transcendental form”.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, mathematicians began to study the geometry of non-Euclidean, where space is considered to be curved rather than flat. According to Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, the space around the gravitational field deviates from the Euclidean space. Experimental tests of general relativity have confirmed that non-Euclidean geometry provides a better model for spatial shape.
Galileo and Cartesian theory about space, matter and movement are the foundation of the scientific revolution, and the scientific revolution was thought to have finally published Newton’s principles in 1687. Newton’s theory of time and space helped him explain the motion of the object. Although his spatial theory is considered to be the most influential theory of physics, it draws the same view from his predecessors’ perspectives.
As one of the pioneers of modern science, Galileo revised the views of the established Aristotle and Ptolemy idea on the geocentric universe. He supports the Copernican theory, that the universe is heliocentric, the center is a fixed sun, and the planets include the earth rotating around the sun. If the earth changes, Aristotle believes that its natural tendency to remain stationary is problematic. Galileo wants to prove that the sun moves around its axis, which is as natural to an object as it is at rest. In other words, for Galileo, celestial bodies, including the Earth, tend to move in circles. This view replaces Aristotle’s other point of view – all objects are attracted to their natural destination.
Rene Descartes began to replace Aristotle’s worldview with space and motion theory determined by natural laws. In other words, he seeks a metaphysical or mechanical interpretation of his theory of matter and movement. The structure of Cartesian space is Euclidean – infinite, uniform and flat. It is defined as a substance containing matter on the contrary, by definition, a substance has a spatial expansion, so there is no empty space.
Descartes’s concept of space is closely related to his theory of the body, mind and material nature. He is known for his “cogito ergo sum” (I think I am), or we can only determine the facts we can doubt and therefore think about and therefore exist. His theory belongs to the tradition of rationalism, which attributes the knowledge of the world to our ability to think, not to the experience that the empiricists believe. He made a clear distinction between body and mind, which is called Cartesian dualism.
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