Kashmir, Conflict profile, South Asia’s Longest War, 1947, India-Pakistan war, 1962, Sino-Indian war, 1965, 1971, 1999, kargil war, The peace process

South Asia’s Longest War

India’s partition in 1947 was born in Kashmir conflict continues today, it involves three nuclear powers – China, India and Pakistan – who disputed territory. Conflict is set for the next Himalayan mountains and valleys in the background, language involved, religious and ethnic patchwork: It is noteworthy that Kasmiris, Dards, Ladakh, D ogras, Hanjis, Gujjars and Bakarwals.

Disputes in the region has continued for more than six years, in a huge cost. Since 1989 rebellion – 42 years after the partition – it has estimated that at least 70,000 people were killed and 8,000 missing by local human rights organizations CCS. Today Kashmir face living next to a huge military presence and ongoing militia warfare. Despite the cease-fire agreement it is between India and Pakistan in 2003, and the 2000s saw internal violence largely given way to non-violent protests, often calm military and insurgent action both interrupted.

Since Pakistani militants in the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, there have been a lot of violence along the border between India and Pakistan, led by the Defence Minister of India AK Antony gave a statement saying there has been a violation of the ceasefire grew 80% over last year’s Pakistan, the likelihood of success of the peace talks, and even farther.

As of 2013, India is responsible for managing 43% of the region – including most of Jammu, Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and the Siachen glacier. Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, 37%, namely Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. In addition, China occupies 20% of Sino-Indian war of 1962 Shaksam Valley, while China claims that the proportion of Kashmir is part of Tibet.

1947 India-Pakistan war

Amidst the tumult of an independent Kashmir Indian maharaja ruler Xin Geha signed a standstill agreement Pakistan. Princes delayed decision to join India or Pakistan, and strive to remain independent, but when forced to choose, in the Poonch area inside against the majority of the Muslim population into an organized rebellion. Annual mass killings of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims led to flee their homes, they are a religious minority in the number of refugees of thousands, while in Patan tribes and Kashmir Poonch rebel invasion, killing a large number of high tide in Baramula .

Kashmir despite a large Muslim majority, the Maharaja finally signed the accession of Jammu and Kashmir under Indian control of the instrument, so that the power of India and Pakistan to send repel presence start this war. This initiative is to be recommended and accepted in India, should be temporary, until the smooth conduct of the referendum which will allow the Kashmiri people to choose who will rule them, although this was never realized.

War lasted until 1948 when India asked to participate in the Security Council. The Council adopted a provision for an immediate ceasefire, and called on Pakistan to withdraw all military presence resolution. In addition, it said, India can retain its military presence minimal, Pakistan will have no say in the management and final disposition “of Jammu and Kashmir will be in accordance with the will of the people through democratically expressed in December 1948 under United Nations auspices By holding a free and fair referendum. “the cease-fire issued 31, but Pakistan did not withdraw its troops from the area, and there is no referendum, causing unrest in the region began to increase.

1962 Sino-Indian war

Increasing instability and conflict escalation of violence culminated in 1962, when China and India military occurred in the territorial dispute. China quickly subdued the Indian army and occupied area, claiming that the administrative area and named Aksai Chin region. Border disputes this and other smaller areas is referred to as the Line of Control.

1965 and 1971 wars

1965 and 1971, fierce fighting broke out again between India and Pakistan. India-Pakistan war of 1971 led to the failure of Pakistan and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), which led to the signing of the Simla Agreement between India and Pakistan of the Pakistani military to surrender. Through this treaty, the two countries agreed through mutual discussion within the framework of the United Nations Charter and peaceful means to resolve all problems. However, this form of two-track diplomacy is merely a “paper of Peace,” and did not reflect left a deadly legacy of the bitter 20-year war in Kashmir.

In the Simla Agreement control separating Indian and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir line (not to be confused with the actual line of control between India and China). Construction of a control line around the “fence” is now disputed by China and Pakistan. India claimed that “fence” to reduce militant attacks. Until 2003 ceasefire line of control is one of the world’s most violent border de facto, to see every day the shelling, machine-gun exchanges between mortars, as well as India and Pakistan, the military and other armed groups.


In the Simla Agreement bearing almost no activity on the ground, and there are more and more organized uprising. Against the Government of India, the disputed state elections and military occupation led to the formation of militant wings of the legislative bodies in some countries, to further create the Mujahideen insurgency, which continues to this day a catalyst.

In Kashmir, the three main armed groups are Hizbul Mujahideen; Lashkar – Toyeba; and the Harkat-UL- Mujahideen. All rooms are to a certain extent, split into different, sometimes opposing factions, many of which have different objectives, views on how to resolve the conflict, and the views of the use of violence. In recent years, its membership and influence has waned. The fourth militant group, the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, secular and nationalist groups seeking full independence of Kashmir, India and Pakistan, as well as increasingly found its support in the past few decades reduced.

1999 Kargil war

In mid-1999, Pakistani soldiers and insurgents from Pakistan-controlled Kashmir infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir. Insurgents take advantage of winter conditions, occupied the Kargil mountain range vacant. By blocking the highway, they want to cut off the only link between the Kashmir Valley and the Ladakh. This results in high-scale conflict Indian Army and Pakistani armies. International fear that the conflict could lead to the withdrawal of the United States put pressure on Pakistan to participate in nuclear transfer.


The main opinion in India, Pakistan and Kashmir can be summarized as follows:

India Outlook

India claims to Maharaja Hari Singh in October 1947 signed the instrument of accession, to the Jammu and Kashmir to India’s control over the kingdom, the region is their Indian Independence Act and departure of the British Empire has been verified by.
India claims that UN Resolution 1172, India received on all outstanding issues between India and Pakistan’s position in 1948.
India claims that Pakistan will not be removed its military, while India’s opinion, the first step in the implementation of the resolution.
India accuses Pakistan of funding in the area of military groups to create instability, and accused Pakistan of launching a proxy war.
India accuses Pakistan of Kashmir spread among the people of the anti-Indian sentiment, through the media, to change the views of Kashmir.
According to most parts of India, Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, especially in the northern region, the continuing lack of political recognition, economic development and basic fundamental rights affected.

Pakistan view

Pakistan said the two countries based on the theory of Kashmir and Pakistan should have been, because it has a Muslim majority.
Pakistan believes that India has held a referendum by not showing disregard for resolutions of the Security Council and the United Nations Commission on India and Pakistan.
Pakistan rejected India’s claim Kashmir, centered around the instrument of accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja of Kashmir, most people do not support. Pakistan also claims to legitimacy, the King handed over under stress control in Jammu and Kashmir, and thus invalid claims.
Pakistan says India violated the pause before signing the agreement and joined the Indian army in Kashmir instruments already.
Pakistan said the 1990–1999 years, the Indian armed forces, the paramilitary and counterinsurgency militias have been responsible for 4501 Kashmiri civilians. Also from 1990 to 1999, has recorded 4242 women between the ages of 7-70 being raped. Similar allegations have also been a number of human rights organizations.
Pakistan claims that Kashmir uprising showed that the people of Kashmir do not want to keep the part of India. Pakistan believes that this means that, whether it is Kashmir with Pakistan or to become independent.

Kashmir View

It is difficult to assess public opinion in Kashmir, as well as supporters of the conflict in the region that contains a variety of different solutions. In addition to those who are more closely whether the government of India or Pakistan-minded, there are those who favor an independent Kashmir. According to a survey of public opinion in Kashmir:
43% of the total number of adults to be used completely independent Kashmir.
Azad Kashmir 1% (in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir) would like to join India compared to the Jammu and Kashmir 28% (in India-controlled Kashmir).
50% of people want to join Azad Kashmir Pakistan compared to the Jammu and Kashmir 2%.
14% of the total population, want to make the Line of Control a permanent border.
All Parties Hurriyat Conference representatives in Kashmir’s main separatist movement. However, it has multiple branches, each holding different views on how the Kashmir issue should be carried out independently, which indicates the presence of those views across the vast territory.
Whether it is because of religion or region, Kashmir is not a thing of the future unified voice. In addition to the endless demands of democracy and human rights standards, in Kashmir, their opinions differ over the territory, which must be in the discussion of solutions to be considered.

The peace process

The first of a peace initiative in July 2000, laid the initial framework for reconciliation. The largest militia Hizb’ul- Mujahideen, declared that a determination of the Indian army after secret negotiations unilateral ceasefire between the different stakeholders. But from militia groups, including India declared the disputed territory of Kashmir negotiations, the three parties should begin immediately request does not comply with the cease-fire collapsed. In 2003, together with the other negotiations leading to a ceasefire between India and Pakistan, the government five stages, beginning to make some progress in 2004, in order to increase trade and movement control line boundary between announced. However, negotiations once again taken a back seat after the 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai, Pakistan admitted were launched from Pakistan after a part of the plan. This led to the upsurge of violence. Positive step towards peace was taken in April 2012, the first high-level talks with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Asif Ali Zardari held within seven years when.

Although this seems to be a promising future of Kashmir, in 2013 and suspended by the secret responsible for the Mumbai attacks militant lineup only surviving member of the highly controversial Kashmir, Mohammad Afzal hanging Masters India India conviction in 2001 Congress attacks, led to widespread protests and violent government repression in Kashmir. Although the newly elected Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Pakistan has promised a new era of Sino-Indian relations, India has been refused on the grounds that Pakistani militants are still violations of the ceasefire on the ground.

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