Major Ethical, Ethical Issues in Business, Ethical Issues Business People Face

Business and Ethical Issues:

Abstract.

In this paper, we present two recent design projects involving mobile technology and instructions for the better business bureau. One of the design applications is developed, but due to ethical issues, there is no field test. The second application is tested in the field, but the project also reveals a number of different types of ethical issues related to intellectual property and business issues. We recommend the use of the concept of “boundary elements“, but require further study to understand what they should look like on intellectual property issues.

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Introduction

This article will describe a study related to the use of location and/or mobile technology in conjunction with web 2 systems. These systems address health care providers, patients, and patients with chronic diseases and their relatives. The system involves the user at one or more stages of system development. Our test in the wild is defined as it should be true. This would mean that real information and real tasks must be exposed to the real user in the real world. The last requirement means that the location infrastructure must exist in a sufficiently large area to be realistic. When new ICT tools are used in health care, it usually involves sensitive and/or life-threatening information. And then must take additional precautions, and must establish high reliability and security in the system. We briefly state that the establishment of a “field test” system in the health care sector may be costly. This often leads to cooperation with a business partner. Our two cases involve business partners but at different levels. Ethical Issues Ethical Issues



These Two Cases

The first application for Down Syndrome Children (formerly known as “mongoloids me” in Norway) and their parents. The parent association says it is Ups & Downs, so we call it “Down’sTown”. Ups & Downs are involved in the system design, as described later. The second system, SamPro, is an ICT-based tool for coordinating a “personal plan” for patients with complex diagnosis and needs. The system contains sensitive information related to health issues. After the ethical approval of the Regional Ethics Committee (for health care) in central Norway, tested in the field. “SamPro” was co-sponsored by public health care and researchers in central Norway. (Some information about “SamPro” found in LINKCARE, 2006).

We combed through some of the most creative business cards out there and spoke to several of the owners and designers.

“Down’sTown”

The prototype is capable of running in the “field” (in Trondheim) due to the infrastructure established by the university (ntnu) and mobile operator Telenor through the joint development department. The infrastructure is described in parts (2007).

Following are The Same as The “Methods and Moral Considerations “

This project was conducted in the 2005 ntnu Interdisciplinary “Team Expert”. The complete results are found in EiT (2005). 23 graduate students participated in the project. I contacted the Ups & Downs organization in November 2004. I contacted the organization’s leader and forwarded the mail to the Ups & Downs mailing list. Get about 10 replies. I also decided that in order not to allow parents to overload 23 students should not be directly connected with Ups & Downs (not even by e-mail). This part is a practical consideration (not 23 enthusiastic students “piercing” a user group), but the decision also contains some moral considerations because this particular user group has a lot of extra burden due to their child’s condition. The material I collected was given to students at the beginning of the semester.

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Results (Requirements and Design)

According to the parents of Down’s syndrome children like to hide themselves, so parents expressed the desire to track the location of technology, but also in the shopping center, as well as from the school. Ethical Issues Ethical Issues
Parents also want a graphical UI for messages (SMS) and calls, as well as some form of calendar reminder. All of these features, parents want to be designed to fit the user group.
The following figure shows some of the design work in the prototype. (The picture means “I’m happy” and the figure shows an SMS sent via an icon-based GUI in the touch screen).
The calendar, picture, etc. can be managed by the parent on the PC, and the location information can be obtained from the parent PC and the mobile phone.



More Ethical Considerations

At the end of this semester, a working prototype is completed. Ups & Downs was asked if it could test the prototype of Dow’s syndrome children. However, parents oppose the prototypes that are tested on their children. This is because parents think it is morally viable for it to provide a potentially useful tool for their children because we can not guarantee that the system will be used for practical use later. We agree with this decision.

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In retrospect, the chosen case is well suited to the educational purpose of the course “Expert in the Team“. Need a real interdisciplinary ability, teamwork and coordination are high. This is suitable for learning goals in the course. I did not do a lot of moral consideration, first before involving parents. However, I show them that this is a 7,5 ECTS working for a master’s degree only one semester. I received almost all the contributions of parents, very positive comments, no negative comments. This may be from my side “oversold” signs. But the positive attitude may also be related to the fact that my small project is considered to contribute to the fact that Down syndrome and “universal design” are in the visibility of university education in ICT. Which in itself can be seen by parents as a value. Ethical Issues Ethical Issues Ethical Issues
However, contrary to the user’s desire and user needs, there may be tension between research and educational purposes. In Norway, the user consent request for the sensitive research project is “informed consent”. (“Down’sTown” is not considered sensitive in this way when we exit the test plan by location tracking.) Ethical Issues
Border elements are concepts that are used when different groups communicate through a technical design. When communicating research projects, we may need boundary elements (which may be different types) to get “informed consent”. This is also related to the parents (or the general different stakeholders) in order to know what they can expect. Based on this, they can decide how much time and effort they have to invest in the project.

Case “SamPFo” (for “Personal Plan” In Health Care)

“SamPro” was conducted by Master Amund Tosterud, ntnu, 2007. He is very grateful for his contribution to this chapter. Ethical Issues Ethical Issues
The development of “SamPro” was funded by the Norwegian OFU project, from public funds from “Innovation Norway” and public health funds (and funds from business partners). The product is now owned by business partners. This is the default result for the OFU project.
“Sampro” users are health care professionals, teachers, service recipients (“patients”) and friends and relatives. The recipient of the service is usually a person with a psychiatric diagnosis and a child with special needs. “SamPro” is based on the secure login for web pages that find different goals and plans for different documents. Use a mobile phone to log in. You can send an alert message to the e-mail or via SMS to inform the recipient that the new message has reached “SamPro”. For informational reasons, the message content will not be public in these alert messages.

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In our wild video interview, we conducted a study. Space here is limited, so our findings can not be described in detail. In this article, we will address some of the ethical issues related to intellectual property and business issues. This becomes a special problem in our research, as described below. Ethical Issues Ethical Issues



Ethical Issues

The initial plan is to combine qualitative data with quantitative data (such as the number of messages sent in the “Sampro”, the number of SMS alerts sent by SamPro, etc.). This becomes more interesting because one of the results is fear of “too many SMS warnings from service providers (especially health care professionals).
However, it is not possible to collect this quantitative information because the product is under the control of a business activity because the company does not prioritize the task. They also use DB as their attributes internally. This is partly due to the improper norms we believe, but also because the public sector may regard “SamPro” as a research project that uses public funds, so see the “too obvious to explain” requirements. More consideration is needed about the interests of different stakeholders. Again, the border element (some type) seems to need to avoid such a problem. Ethical Issues


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