Mesothelioma cancer affecting mesothelial cells that cover most internal organs. There are two main types of mesothelioma; pleura and peritoneum.
This is cancer that begins in the membrane covering the lungs. Although it develops in the chest and involves the lining of the lungs, it is not lung cancer, it is treated differently from lung cancer.
Pleural mesothelioma is the most common type, accounting for about 90% of all this type cancer.
Pleural mesothelioma symptoms
The main symptoms of mesothelioma include:
Shortness of breath – usually worsens with activity or lying down
Chest pain or shoulder and upper arm pain
Loss of appetite, weight loss
A persistent cough or a change in the person’s normal cough
A lot of sweating, especially at night.
Early symptoms of pleural mesothelioma are similar to other illnesses and illnesses, but if you think you have been exposed to asbestos, talk to your doctor.
Peritoneal Mesothelioma Cancer
Another major type is peritoneal mesothelioma, accounting for about 10% of cases. It develops in the lining of the abdomen.
Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma
The main symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include:
Swelling or pain in the abdomen
Loss of appetite
Bowel or urine problems.
Less commonly, mesothelioma begins with a membrane that surrounds the heart or genital organs. The growth pattern gradually grows and spreads to the surrounding area. Rarely, a person may develop mesothelioma in more than one place.
In 2012, Australia diagnosed 726 cases of new mesothelioma, is more common in older men.
Causes of Mesothelioma
The only known cause of mesothelioma is exposure to asbestos. Mesothelioma development may take many years after exposure to asbestos.
There is a time when the skin tumor and chest radiation therapy before.
There is currently no available mesothelioma screening.
If you or your doctor suspects that you may have this type of cancer, you may be able to do some of the following tests:
Blood tests can check your overall health and how your blood cells, liver, and kidneys work.
it can help to identify any abnormality in the lungs, pleural or fluid thickening in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. X-rays also help to identify the fluid in the abdomen.
CT scans also produce three-dimensional images of several organs, can also scan the chest lymph nodes. CT scanning can also be used to observe whether it has spread to other locations.
A biopsy is performed when a sample of pleural or abdominal tissue is removed for examination under a microscope. It is a primary procedure for the diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma, either by VATS (Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery) keyhole surgery or by a CT-guided core biopsy using a needle guided by a CT scan at a local Anesthesia.
From the pleural effusion
This can be used to alleviate the symptoms of dyspnea caused by pleural leakage into the pleural cavity (known as pleural effusion) and, in some cases, for the diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. People with peritoneal mesothelioma may have fluid (called peritoneal effusion) swelling and pain in the abdomen.
An ultrasound scan is used to direct the physician that fluid enters the pleural cavity or abdomen through a needle inserted through the chest wall. The fluid sample is then sent to the pathologist for testing.
Combining the results from the fluid sample with the information from the x-ray and CT scans can provide certainty of the acceptable level of diagnosis.
FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET); mediastinoscopy (for examination and examination of samples in the chest (eg, chest radiographs); and, if the diagnosis is mesothelioma, further testing is usually conducted to find out whether the disease has spread to other parts of the body, Central or intrabronchial ultrasound (EBUS).
The treatment of mesothelioma
Although there is no treatment of mesothelioma, the active treatment recommended to some people. This may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery, or a combination of these treatments. It can help some people achieve longer-term disease control.
Chemotherapeutic drugs are designed to destroy cancer cells while causing the least possible damage to healthy cells. The most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma include pemetrexed and cisplatin or carboplatin.
Peritoneal Mesothelioma Cancer patients
Radiation therapy, using x-rays to kill or damage cancer cells, can be used in different stages of pleural mesothelioma and in different ways. For example, it may alleviate symptoms such as pain caused by tumors and may be administered after chemotherapy or surgery to help kill the remaining cancer cells. Radiotherapy is rarely used to treat peritoneal mesothelioma.
There are two major types of active treatment of pleural mesothelioma: extrapleural pneumonectomy (PPE), which removes the tumor and pleura, the lining of the affected lung, ), Which removes the pleura and as many diseases as possible.
In contrast, surgery is usually not the choice of peritoneal mesothelioma. When it is an option, the lining of the abdomen is removed during the process known as peritoneal dissection. Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer
Treatment of symptoms
When mesothelioma is diagnosed as late, the main goal of treatment is to control the symptoms and to control them for as long as possible.
Treatment may include surgery to improve dyspnea caused by fluid accumulated depreciation. VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery), and removal of some of the lining of the chest wall and lungs. In the process, sterile talcum powder is injected into the pleural cavity, causing inflammation of the closed pleural cavity and helping to prevent the fluid from accumulating again. Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer
A wider range of open procedures can also be performed to drain fluid from the lungs, or to relieve pain in the chest. Indwelling pleural drainage may be used for persons who are not suitable for VATS or open surgery, which allows 1-2 times per week to be discharged, depending on how quickly the fluid re-forms. Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer
The treatment team will discuss with the person appropriate treatment options to help other symptoms such as insomnia, pain, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss.
Although it is most commonly used in people with advanced cancer, palliative care can be used at any stage of cancer treatment. It aims to improve the quality of life by alleviating the symptoms of cancer without trying to cure the disease. Mesothelioma Cancer
Can include management of pain relief, as well as other physical and emotional symptoms.
If you are diagnosed with mesothelioma, you will be taken care of by a range of health professionals, which may include:
Radiologists, who specialize in chest radiographs, CT scans, and other scans
Respiratory physicians investigating symptoms participate in the diagnosis and determine the initial treatment options
Interventional radiologist, who uses a CT scan to guide the needle and other instruments to remove fluid and remove tissue for diagnosis
A pathologist, he examined the cells and tissues under a microscope
Thoracic surgeons perform biopsy procedures and perform surgeries
A medical oncologist, who prescribes and coordinates chemotherapy for treatment
A radiation oncologist who prescribes and coordinates the course of radiotherapy
Palliative care team, assistance in controlling symptoms and providing a range of support services
Nurses, who support you through the various stages of treatment
Other professional health professionals, including dietitians, physiotherapists, social workers and occupations
Prognosis of Mesothelioma Cancer
Doctors can not predict the exact course of the disease because it will depend on the individual circumstances of each individual. However, your doctor may give you the prognosis and possible outcomes based on the type of mesothelioma you are suffering from, the results of the examination, the tumor growth rate, and your age, health, and medical history. Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer Mesothelioma Cancer
In general, early cancer is diagnosed and the result is better. However, once developed, is usually diagnosed because early symptoms of Mesothelioma are often overlooked. Although successful treatment of advanced cancer is more difficult, but can control the disease in a few months or years, and can alleviate symptoms to improve the quality of life.
In 2013, 656 people died of Mesothelioma Cancer in Australia.
Prevention of mesothelioma
Reducing your exposure to asbestos is the most likely way to reduce the risk of mesothelioma, whether at work or at home. Australia has a code of practice for the management and control of asbestos.
From “Understanding Pleural Mesothelioma”, Australian Cancer Commission © 2015. “The Latest Medical Review” Source Booklet: June 2015.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. ACIM (Australian Cancer Incidence and Death). Canberra: AIHW.
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