The Dawn of The Supernova of 1987:
Thirty years ago, astronomers discovered one of the brightest exploding stars in more than 400 years. The supernova called Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A), after the discovery on February 23, 1987, shines for hundreds of millions of suns for several months.
Since the first meeting, SN 1987A continues to be fascinated by astronomers and spectacular lights. Located near the Great Magellanic Cloud, it was the last supernova blast observed for hundreds of years, and the best chance, but the astronomers studied the stage before, during and after the death of a star.
Credits: NASA, ESA and G. Bacon (STScI)
Video from the night watching the small and large Magellan cloud, our Galaxy satellite galaxy began. And then it magnified into a large star of the Great Magellanic Clouds in the birthplace. Located between the red gas mountains is the strange structure of the supernova 1987A, the remnants of the exploding star observed for the first time in February 1987. The location of the supernova is waived by the wave of energy from the outbreak. Two faint outer rings are also visible. All three rings are present in the last days before the explosion, the remains of the fossil remains of the activities of the abandoned stars.
In order to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the SN 1987A, the new images, the delayed film, are based on data animations and 3D models of work directed by Salvatore Orlando in Italy Palermo INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di are being released. Astronomers and the public can explore SN 1987A as never before, by combining NASA Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as the International Atacama Large mm / Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA).
The Hubble Space Telescope image shows the magnificent 1987 galaxy in the Great Magellanic Cloud, near our Galaxy.
OF: NASA, ESA, R.Kirshner (Harvard – Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and M. Mutchler and R.Avila (STScI)
This delayed video sequence of the Hubble Space Telescope image reveals a dramatic change in the material ring around the exploding star Supernova 1987A. These pictures were taken from 1994 to 2016, showing the impact of the shock wave of the supernova shock wave impact ring. When the shock wave hits it, the ring begins to light up. The ring is about a light year.
Credit: NASA, ESA and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysics Center)
Hubble has repeatedly observed SN 1987A since 1990 and has accumulated hundreds of images. Chandra began to observe SN 1987A shortly after its deployment in 1999. ALMA is a powerful array of 66 antennas, which has been collecting high-resolution mm and sub-millimeter data on SN 1987A.
Harley-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Robert Kirshner of Cambridge, Massachusetts and Robert Kirshner of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, said: “The 30-year observations of SN 1987A are important because they provide the final stage of evolution of stars Insight of Palo Alto, California.
The latest data on these powerful telescopes show that SN 1987A has passed an important threshold. The supernova shock wave goes beyond the dense balloon produced in the late life of the supernova star when the star’s rapid outflow or the wind collides with the slower winds that occur in the early red star stage of star evolution. What goes beyond the ring is still not clear, depending on the details of the star’s evolution when it is a red giant.
“The details of this change will allow astronomers to better understand the life of stars destined to fail, and how to end,” says Kari Frank of Pennsylvania State University.
Supernovas such as SN 1987A can stir the surrounding gas and trigger the formation of new stars and planets. The gases formed by these stars and planets will be rich in elements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and iron, which are the basic components of all known life. These elements are formed during supernova star and supernova explosions and then dispersed by the expansion of supernova residues to their main galaxy. Continuing to study the SN 1987A should provide a unique insight into the early stages of this dispersion.
Some of the highlights of the study of these telescopes include:
Hubble study shows that the superstar around the dense ring of light in the optical light, the diameter of about light years. The ring was there at least 200,000 years ago, the stars exploded. From the explosion of ultraviolet light to stimulate the ring of gas, so that its light for decades.
The central structure visible in the Hubble image has now grown to about half an optimal year. The most obvious is that in the center of the supernova wreckage, two large pieces of debris are moving away from each other at about 20 million miles per hour.
From 1999 to 2013, Chandra data show that an ever-increasing number of X-ray emission rings has become brighter. The blast from the original explosion has exploded and heated the gas ring around the supernova to produce an X-ray emission.
Over the past few years, the ring has stopped getting more and more bright X-rays. From the last Chandra observation analysis from February 2013 to September 2015, the total amount of low energy X-rays remained unchanged. In addition, the lower left part of the ring has begun to fade. These changes provide evidence that the blast wave of the explosion has moved beyond the ring into a region with a lower density of the gas. This represents the end of the SN 1987A era.
Beginning in 2012, astronomers use ALMA to observe the wreckage of supernovae, and how the debris actually produces a lot of new dust from the new elements produced in the ancestral stars. Part of this dust will enter the interstellar space and may become the base block for future stars and planets in another system.
These observations also show that the dust in the early universe may be formed by a similar supernova explosion.
Astronomers are still looking for evidence of a black hole or neutron star being exploded. They saw the neutrino flash from the stars. This kind of detection makes astronomers quite sure a compact object, forming a center of the star to collapse – neutron stars or black holes – but no telescopes reveal any evidence.
Chandra plans to be managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA’s Washington Task Force in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s scientific and operational operations.
The Hubble Space Telescope is an international collaboration between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency). NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Mauritius, Maryland, manages telescopes. Baltimore’s Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is responsible for the Hubble Science business. STScI is operated by NASA’s Astronomical Research University Association in Washington.
ALMA is a joint venture between ESO (on behalf of its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan) and KASI (Republic of Korea). The Joint ALMA Observatory runs by ESO, AUI / NRAO, and NAOJ.
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